Category: Geophysical hazards…

Geophysical Hazard Adaptation…

Geophysical Hazard Adaptation…

Syllabus Point: Geophysical hazard adaptation through increased government planning (land use zoning) and personal resilience (increased preparedness, use of insurance and adoption of new technology)

Starter: Watch the below and make a list of how an idividual can help increased their preparedness…

So What is Preparedness…?

It is a set of measures taken at the individual, organisational and societal level to minimise the effects of a Hazard Event. Preparedness measures can range from securing heavy objects, structural modifications and storing supplies, to having insurance, an emergency kit, and evacuation plans. (source: wikipedia)

Main Development: 

Task 1: Government Planning – Landuse Zoning:

What is it?

Landuse Zoninbg is an important aspcet of geophysical hazard adapatation. Different land uses may be prevented from locations in a zone that is known to be at risk of a hazard. For example, densley populated buildings, hospitals, and fire services shouyld not be built close to the fault line or in areas at risk of landslides. Residents can be evacuated and an exclusion zone be formed, this happened in Montserrat in 1996. Building codes can be enforced to ensure that buildings are of an adequate standard…

Case Study example of Landuse Zoning…Christchurch, New Zealand

 

Image result for christchurch new zealand map

 

Use the following resources to answer the following investigative questions:

  1. What is the name of the Land use Zoning plan?
  2. How will it be implemented?
  3. What could be the impacts of the plan? (think pros and cons)

 

https://www.noted.co.nz/currently/social-issues/christchurchs-game-of-zones/

 

Task 2: : Personal resilience (increased preparedness, use of insurance and adoption of new technology)

We already know what preparedness is…

Insurance cover…

One method of preparedness is to take out insurance cover to against hazard events. However, some geophsyical hazard events are considered “acts of god” and so insurance cover is not availabe…

Research an insurance cover policy on the internet and find out the following information:

  1. What does the average policy cover?
  2. How much is the cost per year?
  3. What will the polciy not cover?
  4. What are the pros and cons of the polciy

You can use the below websites to carryout your research…

https://www.iii.org/article/earthquake-insurance-for-homeowners

https://www.earthquakeauthority.com/California-Earthquake-Insurance-Policies/Earthquake-Insurance-Premium-Calculator

 

New Technology

Make notes on the following new technologies that can help preparedness from pgs. 202 – 206 from your course text book…

Image result for ib geography course companion economics

 

Slope Stabalization Methods…

  1. What do they help with (Earthquakes, Volcanoes or Landslides)
  2. Identify several methods
  3. Describe them in more detail
  4. Explain why they are useful in helping with preparedness
  5. Analyse the pros and cons to the methods

 

Building Design…

  1. What do they help with (Earthquakes, Volcanoes or Landslides)
  2. Identify several methods
  3. Describe them in more detail
  4. Explain why they are useful in helping with preparedness
  5. Analyse the pros and cons to the methods

 

Safe Houses…

  1. What do they help with (Earthquakes, Volcanoes or Landslides)
  2. Identify several methods
  3. Describe them in more detail
  4. Explain why they are useful in helping with preparedness
  5. Analyse the pros and cons to the methods

 

Mobile Phone and Computer technology…

  1. What do they help with (Earthquakes, Volcanoes or Landslides)
  2. Identify several methods
  3. Describe them in more detail
  4. Explain why they are useful in helping with preparedness
  5. Analyse the pros and cons to the methods

 

And finally comment on the Controlling of Earthquakes and Volcanoes (Pg.205 and 206)

  • What technology is used to control the hazard events?
  • Why are they effective methods?
Geographic factors affecting geophysical hazard event impacts, including location/time of day and degree of isolation…

Geographic factors affecting geophysical hazard event impacts, including location/time of day and degree of isolation…

Syllabus Point: Geographic factors affecting geophysical hazard event impacts, including rural/urban location, time of day and degree of isolation

Starter: Task 1 – Look at the below diagram. At which areas would you expect:

  1. The highest intensity of the earthquake – explain your response…
  2. The highest amount of damage – explain your response…

Image result for epicentre diagram city park

Main Development: 

Use pgs.184 and 185 from your cousre text book to help you…

Image result for ib geography course companion 2nd edition

Task 2: Rural/Urban location…time of day…and degree of isolation

Your task is to produce an A3 advertisement for the IB on how the above factors can contribute to the impacts of a Geophysical Event. You must follow the below conditions when advertising to the IB:

  • Use key terminology that the IB will understannd
  • Provide visual as well as descriptive information (maps, data, diagrams)
  • Provide comparisons between LICs,MICs and HICs

The following links can also help you with your advertisement…

www.ideo.columbia.edu/chrr/research/profiles

www.cred.be

Plenary: 

Share your advertisments with the class, highlighting the comparions you made…

 

 

 

Landslide Hazard Event in a HIC…Montroc Avalanche in Chamonix valley

Landslide Hazard Event in a HIC…Montroc Avalanche in Chamonix valley

Image result for avalanche chamonix

Syllabus Point: 

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards (see guidance above)
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

Starter: Read the below slide image and access the links in the second slide to make some background notes to the Chamonix valley avalanche case study…

 

 

Location: The small village of Montroc in the Chamonix valleyDate: 9th February 1999Causes: January of 1999 saw very cold ...

 

Sourceshttp://pistehors.com/backcountry/wiki/Articles/Montroc-Avalanchehttp://lhe.epfl.ch/recherche/index.php?option=com_c...

 

 

Mechanisms of plate movement…

Mechanisms of plate movement…

Syllabus Point: To know the Mechanisms of plate movement including internal heating, convection currents, plumes, subduction and rifting at plate margins

Starter: Task 1: Recap – draw four quick sketches of the types of plate boundary movement that you learnt for IGCSE…add some labels too to support your sketches…

Main Development:

Pgs. 164-165 will help you as will the youtube link below…

Image result for ib companion geo

 

You are to work independently on creating a profile for each of the key mechanisms of plate movement…

Internal heating…

  1. Define the mechanismImage result for internal heating plate movement diagram
  2. Draw a labelled diagram of its process
  3. Provide an example in the world

 

 

 

Convection Currents…

  1. Define the mechanism
  2. Draw a labelled diagram of its process
  3. Provide an example in the world

 

Related image

 

 

 

Plumes…

  1. Define the mechanism
  2. Draw a labelled diagram of its process
  3. Provide an example in the world

Image result for plumes diagram

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subduction…

  1. Define the mechanism
  2. Draw a labelled diagram of its process
  3. Provide an example in the world
Image result for subduction

 

Rifting at Plate Margins…

  1. Define the mechanism
  2. Draw a labelled diagram of its process
  3. Provide an example in the world

 

Image result for rifting at plate margins mid atlantic ridge

 

Volcanic Eruption Case study LIC…Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991…

Volcanic Eruption Case study LIC…Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991…

Eruption column of volcanic ash and gas rising above Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991

(source: https://pubs.usgs.gov)

Syllabus Point: 

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards (see guidance above)
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

Starter: From the below piece of writing pick out the secondary hazards that took place because of the volcanic eruption? identify, using SEEP, some of the impacts of these hazards…

Roofs collapsed from ash dispersed by Mount Pinatubo
Following Mount Pinatubo’s cataclysmic June 15, 1991, eruption, thousands of roofs collapsed under the weight of ash made wet by heavy rains (see example in photo above). Ash deposits from the eruption have also been remobilized by monsoon and typhoon rains to form giant mudflows of volcanic materials (lahars), which have caused more destruction than the eruption itself (photo at right shows village buried by lahars). (Photo above courtesy of Peter Baxter, University of Cambridge.
Homes surrounded by lahar deposits from Mount Pinatubo

(source: https://pubs.usgs.gov)

Task: Conducting your own case study investigation…Use your classic 5W Enquiry technique and investigate the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption geophysical hazard…(note – structure of task sourced from www.geographyalltheway.com)…

Where did it happen?

  • Write a description of where it took place…
  • Include a map of the location with vital geographical points of interest…
  • Produce a sketch map of digital print off (or both) of the location (you should highlight the epicentre of the event)…

Image result for map of philippines tectonic setting

(source: Google Image Search)

Image result for plate tectonic setting philippines

(source: Google Image Search)

When did it happen?

  • Date
  • Time (local)
  • Duration
  • Include the sequence of events (like a timeline) to show the speed of onset and the pace of management and recovery

Why did it happen?

  • The physical geographical reasons why the hazard took place…
  • What’S it’s tectonic setting?
  • Produce a diagram of the tectonic processes involved

Use the below links to help discover the When and the Why of the this Volcanic Hazard Event…

https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs113-97/

Who was affected?

  • What were the impacts of the hazard event?
  • Use SEEP to categorize the impacts…

Social

Economical

Environmental

Political

  • The Development Compass research tool…

 

Image result for development compass rose
This research tool in Geography will help you to identify and categorize Social, Economical, Environmental and Political reasons and impacts…

What happened?

  • Describe the management of the hazard event – before, during and after?
  • Planning, preparation, prediction, hazard mapping, evacuation, warnings.
  • Help with recovery, aid – local, regional and international, role of NGOs.
  • Finally – produce a one paragraph summary of the hazard event.

 

 

Volcanic Eruption HIC Case Study…Mt. Ontake, Japan 2014

Volcanic Eruption HIC Case Study…Mt. Ontake, Japan 2014

Mt Ontake eruption

(source: https://www.geography.org.uk)

Syllabus Point: 

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards (see guidance above)
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

Starter:

Make a list of the descriptive things you see in this clip. Try and make your list a geographical one…one word has been placed for you…

  • Extensive pyroclastic flow

Task: Conducting your own case study investigation…Use your classic 5W Enquiry technique and investigate the the recent Indonesian Earthquake geophysical hazard…(note – structure of task sourced from www.geographyalltheway.com)…

Where did it happen?

  • Write a description of where it took place…
  • Include a map of the location with vital geographical points of interest…
  • Produce a sketch map of digital print off (or both) of the location (you should highlight the epicentre of the event)…

Image result for mt ontake map

(source: https://www.emaze.com)

Image result for mt ontake map google earth

(source: https://www.sott.net)

When did it happen?

  • Date
  • Time (local)
  • Duration
  • Include the sequence of events (like a timeline) to show the speed of onset and the pace of management and recovery

Why did it happen?

  • The physical geographical reasons why the hazard took place…
  • What’S it’s tectonic setting?
  • Produce a diagram of the tectonic processes involved

Use the below links to help discover the When and the Why of the this Volcanic Hazard Event…

 https://www.sott.net/article/286416-The-Geoscience-behind-the-Mt-Ontake-eruption

Who was affected?

  • What were the impacts of the hazard event?
  • Use SEEP to categorize the impacts…

Social

Economical

Environmental

Political

  • The Development Compass research tool…

 

Image result for development compass rose
This research tool in Geography will help you to identify and categorize Social, Economical, Environmental and Political reasons and impacts…

What happened?

  • Describe the management of the hazard event – before, during and after?
  • Planning, preparation, prediction, hazard mapping, evacuation, warnings.
  • Help with recovery, aid – local, regional and international, role of NGOs.
  • Finally – produce a one paragraph summary of the hazard event.

 

 https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/01/17/national/families-mount-ontake-eruption-victims-sue-government/#.W56Vs_5Kit8

 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-29399306

Homework – independent work time:

Create a second case study for an LIC Volcanic Hazard Event using the same structure. You can use the resources from GeoSchooley…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Classification of Mass Movement types…

Classification of Mass Movement types…

Syllabus Point: Classification of mass movement types according to cause (physical and human), liquidity, speed of onset, duration, extent and frequency

A Mass Movement Hazard Event can be defined as any large scale-scale movement of the Earth’s surface that are accompanied by a moving agent such as river, glacier or ocean. They include:

Starter: Task 1: Causes of Mass Movements

From the list below identify which ones are human and physical causes of Mass Movement Hazard Events…

 

The

  • Gravity
  • Farming
  • Tourism
  • Slope angle
  • Internal resistance of the slope – Shear strength
  • Shear stress – forces pulling downslope
  • Earthquakes
  • Drilling
  • Dam building

Now for each one write an explanation of how it might cause a Mass Movement Hazard event…

 

Task 2: Physical and Human causes of Mass Movements continued…

Create a table like the one below. Give three headings – Physical Causes of Mass Movement, Explanation, Human Causes of Mass Movement, Explanation…Use pgs. 174 and 175 and the Google Search Engine to help fill your table with at least five examples for each…

Image result for blank 4 column table

(source: Google Image Search)

 

Task 3: Levels of Liquidity, speed onset and duration…

Liquidity…

Resultado de imagen de mass movements fall slide

 

speed onset…Image result for speed of onset mass movement diagram

Types of Mass Movement and the classification of mass movements by speed

 

Duration…

The Duration of Mass Movements is heavily connected to speed onset, as you can see in the diagram above….

Complete the table below providing the 4 column titles:

  • Mass movement
  • Speed Onset
  • Duration
  • Explanation for duration of movement

Image result for blank diagram 4 columns

Task 4: Extent…(Spatial Distribution…)

Image result for landslide susceptibilityhttps://earthobservatory.nasa.gov(source: )

Practice Exam style Questions:

Q1. Describe the global pattern of landslide susceptibility(3marks)

Q2. Explain the global pattern of landslide susceptibility (5marks)

Remember the skill of OSO when describing…

Odd…

Specific..

Odd…

 

Task 5: Frequency…

Resultado de imagen de frequency landslides

Print off the above graph and annotate the Five key areas with reference to rainfall and frequency…

Access slide show  at the top of this page and on slide 58 answer practice exam questions (i) and (ii)…

Plenary: Working on our EAQs…

Using a specific case study, examine the causes, consequences and responses to a Mass Movement Hazard Event (10marks)

Characteristics of Volcanoes…

Characteristics of Volcanoes…

Syllabus Point: To know the characteristics of volcanoes (shield, composite and cinder) formed by varying types of volcanic eruption; and associated secondary hazards (pyroclastic flows, lahars, landslides)

Starter: 

Task 1: Define the key terms:

Shield volcanoes

Composite volcanoes

Cinder volcanoes

Secondary hazards

Pyroclastic Flows

Lahars

Landslides

 

Main Development:

Task 2:

Create a profile on the tasksheet link below of the Three types of volcanoe important for your syllabus (Composite, Shield and Cinder) providing the followig for each:

  • A diagram with lables
  • A description of the features of the volcanoe
  • Examples from around the world
  • The types of Secondary Hazards that take place at that volcano

Composite, Shield and Cinder Volcanoes tasksheet

 

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratovolcano

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shield_volcano

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinder_cone

A Composite Volcano

Image result for composite volcanoes

(source: https://www.thinglink.com/scene/713167024020258817)

A Shield Volcano

Image result for shield volcano DIAGRAM

(source: http://www.diventare.co/Schematics/shield-volcano-diagram.html)

A Cinder Volcano

Image result for cinder volcano DIAGRAM

(source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinder_cone)

 

Image result for cinder volcano DIAGRAM

(source: https://www.zmescience.com/other/science-abc/types-of-volcano/)

Characteristics of Earthquakes…

Characteristics of Earthquakes…

Syllabus Point: 

Characteristics of earthquakes (depth of focus, epicentre and wave types)
caused by varying types of plate margin movement and human triggers (dam
building, resource extraction); and associated secondary hazards (tsunami,
landslides, liquefaction, transverse faults)

Starter: 

Task 1: Define the key terms:

Epicentre

Focus/Deep Focus/Shallow Focus

Seismic Waves/(P) Waves/ (S) Waves/ Surface Waves

Plate Boundaries

Human Triggers

Secondary Hazards – tsunamis, landslides, liquefaction, transverse faults

Main Development:

Task 2:

Create a profile on the task sheet link below of the Four Plate Boundaries (Destructive, Constructive, Collision, Conservative) providing the following for each:

  • A diagram with lables
  • A description of the plate tectonic setting
  • Examples from around the work
  • The types of Geophysical Hazards that take place on the boundary

blank plate boundary diagrams

Check the learning….Can you identify the key features of an earthquake on this blank diagram and then answer the key question…

Blank diagram of an erthquake

 

Task 3: Human Triggers of Earthquake Events…

Many earthquakes occur a long way from any plate
boundary. Some of these are related to human activity, such
as the construction of large dams, mining, fracking and the testing of
nuclear weapons.(IB Geography Course Companion 2nd Edition)

For the following Human Triggers of Earthquake Events your task is to:

  1. Explain how the Human event could possibly trigger earthquakes
  2. Identify and Explain the secondary hazards that could result after the eaarthquke event in the case study you are researching

1) Dam Building – Case Study Dam Building in China causes earthquakes…

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1974736.stm

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7120856.stm

 https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/a-link-between-dams-and-earthquakes-4305816/

2)  Resource extraction – Case Study Oil and Gas extraction in the USA causes earthquakes…

http://theconversation.com/why-is-oil-and-gas-activity-causing-earthquakes-and-can-we-reduce-the-risk-40810

Plenary: 

Read pgs.172 and 173 of your course text book of resultant hazards of earthquakes and create 100 word summary of the secondary hazards that can take place…

Image result for ib course geo companion