Category: 3. Hazard risk and vulnerability

Landslide Hazard Event in a HIC…Montroc Avalanche in Chamonix valley

Landslide Hazard Event in a HIC…Montroc Avalanche in Chamonix valley

Image result for avalanche chamonix

Syllabus Point: 

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards (see guidance above)
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

Starter: Read the below slide image and access the links in the second slide to make some background notes to the Chamonix valley avalanche case study…

 

 

Location: The small village of Montroc in the Chamonix valleyDate: 9th February 1999Causes: January of 1999 saw very cold ...

 

Sourceshttp://pistehors.com/backcountry/wiki/Articles/Montroc-Avalanchehttp://lhe.epfl.ch/recherche/index.php?option=com_c...

 

 

Volcanic Eruption Case study LIC…Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991…

Volcanic Eruption Case study LIC…Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991…

Eruption column of volcanic ash and gas rising above Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991

(source: https://pubs.usgs.gov)

Syllabus Point: 

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards (see guidance above)
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

Starter: From the below piece of writing pick out the secondary hazards that took place because of the volcanic eruption? identify, using SEEP, some of the impacts of these hazards…

Roofs collapsed from ash dispersed by Mount Pinatubo
Following Mount Pinatubo’s cataclysmic June 15, 1991, eruption, thousands of roofs collapsed under the weight of ash made wet by heavy rains (see example in photo above). Ash deposits from the eruption have also been remobilized by monsoon and typhoon rains to form giant mudflows of volcanic materials (lahars), which have caused more destruction than the eruption itself (photo at right shows village buried by lahars). (Photo above courtesy of Peter Baxter, University of Cambridge.
Homes surrounded by lahar deposits from Mount Pinatubo

(source: https://pubs.usgs.gov)

Task: Conducting your own case study investigation…Use your classic 5W Enquiry technique and investigate the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption geophysical hazard…(note – structure of task sourced from www.geographyalltheway.com)…

Where did it happen?

  • Write a description of where it took place…
  • Include a map of the location with vital geographical points of interest…
  • Produce a sketch map of digital print off (or both) of the location (you should highlight the epicentre of the event)…

Image result for map of philippines tectonic setting

(source: Google Image Search)

Image result for plate tectonic setting philippines

(source: Google Image Search)

When did it happen?

  • Date
  • Time (local)
  • Duration
  • Include the sequence of events (like a timeline) to show the speed of onset and the pace of management and recovery

Why did it happen?

  • The physical geographical reasons why the hazard took place…
  • What’S it’s tectonic setting?
  • Produce a diagram of the tectonic processes involved

Use the below links to help discover the When and the Why of the this Volcanic Hazard Event…

https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs113-97/

Who was affected?

  • What were the impacts of the hazard event?
  • Use SEEP to categorize the impacts…

Social

Economical

Environmental

Political

  • The Development Compass research tool…

 

Image result for development compass rose
This research tool in Geography will help you to identify and categorize Social, Economical, Environmental and Political reasons and impacts…

What happened?

  • Describe the management of the hazard event – before, during and after?
  • Planning, preparation, prediction, hazard mapping, evacuation, warnings.
  • Help with recovery, aid – local, regional and international, role of NGOs.
  • Finally – produce a one paragraph summary of the hazard event.

 

 

Volcanic Eruption HIC Case Study…Mt. Ontake, Japan 2014

Volcanic Eruption HIC Case Study…Mt. Ontake, Japan 2014

Mt Ontake eruption

(source: https://www.geography.org.uk)

Syllabus Point: 

  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards (see guidance above)
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

Starter:

Make a list of the descriptive things you see in this clip. Try and make your list a geographical one…one word has been placed for you…

  • Extensive pyroclastic flow

Task: Conducting your own case study investigation…Use your classic 5W Enquiry technique and investigate the the recent Indonesian Earthquake geophysical hazard…(note – structure of task sourced from www.geographyalltheway.com)…

Where did it happen?

  • Write a description of where it took place…
  • Include a map of the location with vital geographical points of interest…
  • Produce a sketch map of digital print off (or both) of the location (you should highlight the epicentre of the event)…

Image result for mt ontake map

(source: https://www.emaze.com)

Image result for mt ontake map google earth

(source: https://www.sott.net)

When did it happen?

  • Date
  • Time (local)
  • Duration
  • Include the sequence of events (like a timeline) to show the speed of onset and the pace of management and recovery

Why did it happen?

  • The physical geographical reasons why the hazard took place…
  • What’S it’s tectonic setting?
  • Produce a diagram of the tectonic processes involved

Use the below links to help discover the When and the Why of the this Volcanic Hazard Event…

 https://www.sott.net/article/286416-The-Geoscience-behind-the-Mt-Ontake-eruption

Who was affected?

  • What were the impacts of the hazard event?
  • Use SEEP to categorize the impacts…

Social

Economical

Environmental

Political

  • The Development Compass research tool…

 

Image result for development compass rose
This research tool in Geography will help you to identify and categorize Social, Economical, Environmental and Political reasons and impacts…

What happened?

  • Describe the management of the hazard event – before, during and after?
  • Planning, preparation, prediction, hazard mapping, evacuation, warnings.
  • Help with recovery, aid – local, regional and international, role of NGOs.
  • Finally – produce a one paragraph summary of the hazard event.

 

 https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/01/17/national/families-mount-ontake-eruption-victims-sue-government/#.W56Vs_5Kit8

 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-29399306

Homework – independent work time:

Create a second case study for an LIC Volcanic Hazard Event using the same structure. You can use the resources from GeoSchooley…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Hazard risk and vulnerability Syllabus Breakdown…

3. Hazard risk and vulnerability Syllabus Breakdown…

 

Fresh 6.9-Magnitude Earthquake Hits Indonesia's Lombok
  • Two contemporary contrasting case studies each for volcanic hazards, earthquake hazards and mass movement hazards (see guidance above)
  • For each geophysical hazard type, the case studies should develop knowledge and understanding of:
    • geophysical hazard event profiles, including any secondary hazards
    • varied impacts of these hazards on different aspects of human well-being
    • why levels of vulnerability varied both between and within communities, including spatial variations in hazard perception, personal knowledge and preparedness
Earthquake in an HIC…Japan (2011):

Earthquake in an HIC…Japan (2011):

Starter:

It wasn’t just an earthquake hazard event…two other hazard events followed it…

 

 

 

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

 

Japan Earthquake 2011 Case Study Investigation…

 


Image result for japan 2011 earthquake

(source: Google Image Search)

Task: Conducting your own case study investigation…Use your classic 5W Enquiry technique and investigate the Japan 2011 Earthquake/Tsunami/Human Induced geophysical hazard…(note – structure of task sourced from www.geographyalltheway.com)…

Where did it happen?

  • Write a description of where it took place…
  • Include a map of the location with vital geographical points of interest…
  • Produce a sketch map of digital print off (or both) of the location (you should highlight the epicentre of the event)…

Image result for map japan

Map of Japan (source: https://www.lonelyplanet.com)

Image result for japan earthquake 2011 map

Map of epicentre of earthquake (source: http://www.earthweek.com)

Image result for japan earthquake 2011 map spatial extent shakemap

Shakemap of the 2011 Hazard Event (source: https://www.huffingtonpost.com)

Seismic hazard of the Japan earthquake:  Aftershocks of the Japan earthquake: 

(source: https://www.huffingtonpost.com)

Use the below link to gain further information on location and other elements to earthquake profile…

https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us2000ggbs#map

 

When did it happen?

  • Date
  • Time (local)
  • Duration
  • Include the sequence of events (like a timeline) to show the speed of onset and the pace of management and recovery

 

Facts and information about the Hazard Event…

https://www.livescience.com

 https://www.britannica.com/event/Japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-of-2011

Why did it happen?

  • The physical geographical reasons why the hazard took place…
  • What’S it’s tectonic setting?
  • Produce a diagram of the tectonic processes involved

 

 

Image result for japan earthquake 2011 tectonics

The plate tectonic setting (source:http://montessorimuddle.org)

Image result for japan earthquake 2011 tectonics

Map and 3D image of the three way destructive plate boundary (source: https://www.telegraph.co.uk)

 

Who was affected?

  • What were the impacts of the hazard event?
  • Use SEEP to categorize the impacts…

dev elopment compass rose

Social

Economical

Environmental

Political

 

What happened?

  • Describe the management of the hazard event – before, during and after?
  • Planning, preparation, prediction, hazard mapping, evacuation, warnings.
  • Help with recovery, aid – local, regional and international, role of NGOs.
  • Finally – produce a one paragraph summary of the hazard event.

 

Image result for bbc icon https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-16334434

Image result for wikipedia iconhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanitarian_response_to_the_2011_T%C5%8Dhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami

https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2011/03/japan-earthquake-rescue-recovery-and-reaction/100024/

 

Homework – independent work time:

Revise what ar the 3Rs when it comes to responding to Hazard Events…

Rescue…

Reconstruction…Image result for person thinking

Rehabilitation…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earthquake in an LIC…Indonesia (Lombok island) 2018:

Earthquake in an LIC…Indonesia (Lombok island) 2018:

Key case study structure resource for you to use:

A Case Study Investigation Structure for my Notes…

Starter:

The moment the Earthquake event struck Indonesia:

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VDbB61oJpRk)

Task: Conducting your own case study investigation…Use your classic 5W Enquiry technique and investigate the the recent Indonesian Earthquake geophysical hazard…(note – structure of task sourced from www.geographyalltheway.com)…

Where did it happen?

  • Write a description of where it took place…
  • Include a map of the location with vital geographical points of interest…
  • Produce a sketch map of digital print off (or both) of the location (you should highlight the epicentre of the event)…

 

Image result for map indonesia

Map of Indonesia and its major islands (source:https://www.lonelyplanet.com)

 

Image result for lombok earthquake map epicentre

Interactive map showing epicentre of the earthquake in lombok basin (source: https://earthobservatory.sg)

Indonesia earthquake today MAP

A shakemap showing the depth of the fatal earthquake (source: https://www.express.co.uk)

 

Use the below link to gain further information on location and other elements to earthquake profile…

https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us2000ggbs#map

 

When did it happen?

  • Date
  • Time (local)
  • Duration
  • Include the sequence of events (like a timeline) to show the speed of onset and the pace of management and recovery

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Wd0qC76BXo)

And then there were violent aftershocks after the first earthquake – 7.0 on the Richter Scale…

(source: https://youtu.be/e6TdU050hvw9)

 

Why did it happen?

  • The physical geographical reasons why the hazard took place…
  • What’S it’s tectonic setting?
  • Produce a diagram of the tectonic processes involved

Subduction zone beneath Java, Bali and Lombok islands, Indonesia

Block-diagram showing a cross-section of the subduction zone beneath the islands of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa in Indonesia. The Indo-Australian tectonic plate (on the left) dives under the Eurasian plate (on the right).

When the Indo-Australian plate reaches a depth greater than 100km, the water it contains lowers the fusion point of the surrounding rocks, which creates magma. This magma is hotter and less dense than the rocks around and therefore starts to migrate towards the surface, where it eventually generates volcanism typical of subduction. The chain of volcanoes is more or less always at the same distance (around 300km) from the trench, which is the surface limit between Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates. (source: https://earthobservatory.sg)

Subduction zone beneath Java, Bali and Lombok islands, Indonesia

Image result for THE TECTONIC PLATES OF LOMBOK

(source: https://volcanohotspot.wordpress.com)

Who was affected?

  • What were the impacts of the hazard event?
  • Use SEEP to categorize the impacts…

Social

Economical

Environmental

Political

 

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_Z6S45DAZc&t=39s)

 

(source: https://youtu.be/UBEcj0cPjgk)

Use the articles to help identify and categorize the impacts too…

Image result for guardian newspaper icon https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/29/casualties-in-earthquake-on-indonesian-island-of-lombok

Image result for bbc icon https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-45238018

https://en.wikipedia.org/

 

What happened?

  • Describe the management of the hazard event – before, during and after?
  • Planning, preparation, prediction, hazard mapping, evacuation, warnings.
  • Help with recovery, aid – local, regional and international, role of NGOs.
  • Finally – produce a one paragraph summary of the hazard event.

Image result for guardian newspaper iconhttps://www.theguardian.com/

 https://reliefweb.int/report/indonesia/indonesia-lombok-earthquakes-tears-relief-first-help-reaches-remote-villages

 http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/08/06/aid-assistance-arrive-in-lombok-after-7-magnitude-earthquake.html

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_QnVCSpo_s)

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kWwyq0NDH-Y)

https://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2018/aug/19/aftermath-earthquake-lombok-indonesia-video

 

Homework – independent work time:

Create a second case study for a HIC earthquake Hazard Event using the same structure. You can use the resources from GeoSchooley…