Category: Tourism and Sport at the International Scale

Political, economic and cultural factors affecting the hosting of international sporting events,

Political, economic and cultural factors affecting the hosting of international sporting events,


Syllabus Point: Political, economic and cultural factors affecting the hosting of international sporting events, including Olympics and football World Cup events

Task: You need to produce a case study of costs and benefits for one country hosting an international event

Starter: Research the controversy around the awarding of the 2022 FIFA world cup to Qatar…

  1. Identify the issues surrounding the controversy…
  2. Explain the pros and cons of awarding the event to Qatar…

Main Development: 

Case Study – The Costs and Benefits of hosting the Olympic Games in 2012 for London…

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The pgs. you require from your course text book are 248 – 250.

Read the case study on London and work your way through the progressive tasks underneath…


Take a photograph of Figure E 20. During and After: London’s 2012 legacy –  with your device, print the image of the map for your work notes.

  1. Annotate the similarities and differences between the two maps
  2. Give somne comments on assessing the legacy of the facilities left after the event (think Social, Economical, Environmental and Political legacies)

Task 2: 

Create a table like the one below identifying the pros and cons for London hosting the event…

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Task 3:

Answer the following exam style questions to help summarise your case study:

Q. Comment on the costs and benefits of hosting an international event like the Olympics (2+2+2)


Follow up Creative Task – My own Olympic Bid…

In pairs you are to produce an Olymnpic Bid for the future games of 2032. Your pair can pick to be the following countries:

  1. Turkey
  2. Iran
  3. South Africa

The following tasks will help to formulate your bid for the Games. Remember – this will all be working towards understanding what the SEEP impacts of the games can be on a country.


Task 1: Create a country factfile providing the following:

Population size

GDP for 2018

Main resources available

Main industry of country

The religion of the country

Life expectancy

Literacy rate

Level Political stability

Climate conditions

Map with written description of location


Task 2: Create an initial mission statement in your pair of why your country wants the 2032 games. In this task you can:

  • Research previous countries bids and see what their reasons were
  • Are your countries reasons similar to theirs?
  • What would the games do for natural environment? Your political environment? and social environment?

Come up with a statement that you can share with the group


Task 3: Factors affecting whether you can host the Games???

Produce a table below focusing on the political, cultural and economic factors that will affect whether or not you are viable to host the games or not…

Additionally, highlight the factors in a green if they are factors that will help you host the games and a red it its a factor that will go against you hosting the games…

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The Role of TNCs in Expanding International Tourism…

The Role of TNCs in Expanding International Tourism…


Syllabus Point: The role of TNCs in expanding international tourism destinations, including the costs and benefits of TNC involvement for different stakeholders….

Starter: Who are stakeholder’s when TNCs are in involved in Tourism?

A stakeholder refers to a person with an interest in something. In this case, it means a person (or group of people) who are affected by TNCs in tourism.

Task 1: Create an A3 revision sheet on how TNCs have hevel helped to expand international tourism and the different stakeholders involved…Try to use information, examples and images in your revision sheet…

Table 1: The stakeholder table…

Stakeholder Possible costs of TNC involvement Possible benefits of TNC involvement
Tourist Lack of choice due to consolidation

Prices may be higher because of a lack of competition between TNCs

Lower prices due to economies of scale

Confidence in brands

Similar experience regardless of location

Can speak their own language when on holiday

Tourism employee at destination Can be offered little choice of job opportunities as TNCs are the only employer

Vulnerability: a decision to reduce investment can leave local people without work at short notice

Leakage: much of the money spent by the tourist does not make its way to the destination but is instead repatriated back to the home country of the TNC

Job opportunities

Possible training e.g. language skills

International standards in terms of contracts (e.g. paid leave, fixed hours)

Local person (not employed in tourism) at destination Loss of political power compared to the TNC due to the need to attract TNC investment

Loss of local culture due to foreign influences in language, food, architecture

TNC investment can create cumulative causation (e.g. investment in local airport stimulates overall economy)
People interested in development and environmental issues More people travelling further and for longer means more environmental damage e.g. carbon emissions from flights TNCs are brand image conscious and often have sustainability policies and support charities (Thomas Cook, 2018b.)

(Source of table:

How have TNCs affected international tourism?

TNCs such as Expedia and Priceline have affected international tourism by making it cheaper, simpler and more accessible.

Cheaper travel

International travel is cheaper partly because TNCs have an economy of scale. This means that as they become larger, they can save money. This can happen, for example, by having the same website to deal with several different countries and simply changing the language that appears on the screen. For example, Skyscanner enables over 60 million customers to view identical information in over thirty languages each month (Skyscanner, 2018), but it is the same website that is being accessed regardless of the country the person is in. Skyscanner further benefits from being based in China with offices in just ten cities: Barcelona, Beijing, Budapest, Edinburgh, Glasgow, London, Miami, Shenzhen, Singapore and Sofia (Skyscanner, 2018). This saves money because the TNC doesn’t need to have offices in every country it operates in.

TNCs also deliver cheaper costs to the consumer because they encourage competition. Through price-checking sites (such as Skyscanner, Kayak, Agoda, and so on), people can easily compare the prices for flights and hotels.(source:

Simpler travel

TNCs have also made it simpler to be a tourist by offering package holidays. For example, Thomas Cook offers full package tours that include everything from the point of the airport departure all the way to the destination and back. By operating the travel agency in the country of origin, as well as the airlines and hotels in the destination, the difficulty of travelling is removed. The customer doesn’t need to speak the local language, or even convert money before arriving, because the travel company does everything for them.

Even if tourists do prefer to book their flights, accommodation and so on separately, the tourist can still have an easier experience by using a TNC for part of the booking. Groups such as Exodus and Intrepid are organisations that offer ‘local’ tours in different countries. These tours are sometimes offered as a package, but sometimes the tourist is still expected to purchase meals, drinks and excursions separately. However, the company offers the ‘bare bones’ of the tour (accommodation and transport) for the tourist. The tourist will have a similar experience regardless of the country they are in – from Cambodia to Canada – because the travel company offers tours in these different countries that operate to the same international standards.(source:

More accessible travel

Travel is also more accessible thanks to TNCs. By definition, international airlines are TNCs and they are constantly expanding. New and larger airports are being developed in most countries. International airlines are helping this process by moving to smaller ‘hub’ airports.

Historically larger airports, such as Heathrow in London and Chek Lap Kok in Hong Kong, were preferred by airlines because they offered passengers the ability to switch flights and thereby access more destinations. However, as the number of travellers has increased, it has become economical to operate from smaller airports with fewer destinations. Ryanair and Easyjet in Europe have been joined by airlines in other parts of the world such as Air Asia. These TNCs operate a simple flight schedule at low cost, often to and from small airports that mean it is easier for people to travel regardless of where they live. (source:

Horizontal versus vertical tourism integration

A major factor affecting TNCs in the travel industry is the nature of integration. This can be split into vertical integration and horizontal integration.

Vertical integration means that the same company owns each stage of the tourism. This would include the travel agent, the airline, the coach company (transferring tourists from the airport to the hotel), the hotel, and the tour guides. For many years, it was easier to make a profit by offering the full package tour because a small profit at each of these levels meant a larger profit at the end.

Horizontal integration means that a company owns several companies offering the same level of the tourism. For example, airlines are frequently owned by airline groups. The International Airlines Group owns Aer Lingus, British Airways, Iberia and Vueling airlines (IAG, 2018). This allows them to make a profit by combining parts of each business. For example, when purchasing new aeroplanes, they can negotiate a bigger discount by buying more planes at once. (source:

  • Horizontal and vertical integration in the tourism industry. Source: By the author. (source:

Industry consolidation

Industry consolidation has occurred at both the vertical and horizontal levels. Many brands in travel – including airlines, hotel chains, travel agencies and so on – are actually owned and operated by the same parent company that most people have never heard of. For example, The Travel Corporation owns thirty tourism brands (Golan, 2016). Many of these TNCs are involved in buying their competitors to form larger travel companies. This is known as ‘industry consolidation’.

This has made it cheaper for tourists to travel. As a result of the lower costs, tourists now travel further, more frequently, and for longer. They have more confidence in travel because they trust the brands that offer a standardised service. Furthermore, large TNCs can divert more money to good causes, such as the The TreadRight Foundation which is supported by The Travel Corporation and has projects in over thirty countries (TreadRight, 2018).

However, critics argue that just a few companies control most of the branded travel opportunities, and that this can stifle competition. It can also mean that the TNCs are very powerful because they are in control of so much tourism, and this allows them to demand lower costs from their suppliers which harms local economies.  (source:

Task 2: A case study TNC expanding international tourism…Ryanair

Watch the following documentary and fill in the case study sheet on the link below…


The role of the TNCs in expanding international tourism destinations – Ryanair Case Study…




Task 3: Answer questions 1-7 from your course text books on pg. 243:

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Niche Tourism Strategies with a Global Sphere of Influence…

Niche Tourism Strategies with a Global Sphere of Influence…


Syllabus Point: To know niche national tourism strategies with a global sphere of influence, including aventure tourism, movie location tourism and heritage tourism…

Starter: Task 1 – discussion starter!!!

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“Mass Tourism is the greatest thing to happen to a country”

Discuss this statement…what might be the pros and the cons to using tourism as a startegy to develop?

Main Developement: 

What is Niche Tourism?

Niche tourism refers to special-interest tourism catering for relatively small numbers of tourist” (as stated by the international baccalaureate, 2017)

Task 2: For the following types of tourism create a profile using the links below and pgs. 237 – 242 in your course books:

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Map for your mapping task in each kind of Niche Tourism…

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(source: Google Image Search)

Adventure Tourism – The Himalayas in Nepal: 


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  1. Define this kind of tourism…
  2. Map the location of the country that uses this kind of tourism…
  3. Identify its sphere of influence…
  4. List the benefits it brings…
  5. List the conflicts that arise…
  6. Explain the stratgies to manage it effects…



Movie Location Tourism – Disneyland in the USA: 

  1. Define this kind of tourism…
  2. Map the location of the country that uses this kind of tourism…Image result for DISNEYLAND
  3. Identify its sphere of influence…
  4. List the benefits it brings…
  5. List the conflicts that arise…
  6. Explain the stratgies to manage it effects…


Heritage Tourism – Machu Picchu in Peru

  1. Define this kind of tourism…
  2. Map the location of the country that uses this kind of tourism…
  3. Identify its sphere of influence…
  4. List the benefits it brings…
  5. List the conflicts that arise…
  6. Explain the stratgies to manage it effects…

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For a fim or tv programme that you have enjoyed, investigate the impact it has had on the tourism industry in the area it was set – for example The Lord of The Rings and The Hobbit movies and their impact on New Zealand


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