Category: Paper 2 Core Units

Lessons 7&8: Forced Migration…

Lessons 7&8: Forced Migration…

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The Geo-Inquiry Process: Ask (develop question), Collect (acquire information), Visualize (analyze information), Create (develop stories), Act (share stories)

Syllabus block:

L.O: To know The causes and consequences of forced migration and internal displacement through the inquiry of two case studies…

Key skill development:

Identification (AO1)

Description (AO2)

Geographical Reasoning and Analysis (A03)

Inquiry (A04)

 

Key terms:

Migration

Push/Pull Factors

Forced Migration

Internal displacement

Refugee

Climate refugee

Starter – Task 1:

Photograph 1: In Kiribati, an island republic in the Central Pacific, large parts of the village Eita (below) have succumbed to flooding from the sea.

Key Questions: What might be the causes and consequences of such intense flooding? How might you respond to this situation if this was your home?

(source of photograph: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/06/20/621782275/the-refugees-that-the-world-barely-pays-attention-to?t=1602581181147)

 

DevelopmentTask 2: Inquiry into to two case studies of Forced Migration …

Complete the task sheet link below using the following resources on the two case studies – 1) The Jewish people migrating from Germany and 2) The Kiribati people emigrating from their island homes in the Central Pacific...

Forced Migration Inquiry task sheet

 

Recap on the theory…

(source: https://rashidfaridi.com/2018/04/05/migration-theories-lees-push-pull-theory/)

Forced Migration can be defined as…

A person subject to a migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees internationally and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects). (source: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-we-do/networks/european_migration_network/glossary_search/forced-migrant_en).

 

Internal displacement can then be defined as…

Th forced movement of people within the country they live in, not internationally (source: https://www.internal-displacement.org/internal-displacement)

 

Case study one…Politically forced

The Jewish people forced out of Germany

Background information…

Between 1933 and 1937, a total of about 130,000 Jews left the national socialist Germany. Many left for South Africa, Palestine and Latin America. Many also went to Eastern Europe, particularly families who had moved to Germany from there previously. However, thousands remained in Northern and Western Europe. In a letter to an acquaintance in Buenos Aires (Argentina), Edith Frank complained at the end of 1937: “I think that all the German Jews are searching the world today and there is no room for them anymore.” (source: https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/impossibilities-escaping-1933-1942/)

 

What caused the forced Migration? What were the consequences for the Jewish people?

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRcNq4OYTyE) – (warning some scenes may be distressing)

 

Visual – where they migrated to…

No description available.

Map 1: The Jewish forced migration between the years 1933 – 1939: sources https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/impossibilities-escaping-1933-1942/)

 

Articles…Jewish communities still feeling the consequences…

 

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/2/6/anti-semitic-incidents-rise-to-fresh-record-in-uk

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-51387844

 

 

Case study two…Environmentally forced

Background information…

In 2004, the people of Kiribati acknowledged, in the Otin Taai Declaration,[2] that human-induced climate change will have an extensive range of negative impacts on peoples of the Pacific Islands, including:

loss of coastal land and infrastructure due to erosion, inundation and storm surges

increase in frequency and severity of cyclones with risks to human life, health, homes and communities

loss of coral reefs with implications for the sea eco-systems on which the livelihood of many Islanders depends

changes in rainfall patterns with increased droughts in some areas and more rainfall with flooding in other areas

threats to drinking water supplies due to changes in rainfall, sea-level rise and inundation

loss of sugarcane, yams, taro and cassava due to extreme temperatures and rainfall changes

human health impacts with an increase in the incidence of dengue fever and diarrhoea.

 

What is causing the forced Migration (also use information above for your task sheet)? What are the consequences for the Kiribati people?

 

Visual – where they are migrating to…

To view large size version of map please visit the source: https://psmag.com/news/disaster-and-migration-in-the-south-pacific-a-failure-of-international-law)

 

Articles…Further information of the consequences on Kiribati communities…

https://psmag.com/news/disaster-and-migration-in-the-south-pacific-a-failure-of-international-law

 

Plenary and homework – Task 3: Create a plan for an essay response to the following question…

 

Q. Using examples, explain the causes and consequences of forced migration (10marks)…

Your plan should focus on using the following points from the below link…

 

10mark Extended Answer Questions – Support From Geoschooley…

 

 

Lessons 3&4: Contrasting countries in terms of population change…Italy (HIC) & Nigeria (LIC)

Lessons 3&4: Contrasting countries in terms of population change…Italy (HIC) & Nigeria (LIC)

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Japan’s population is oldest in the world.

(source:https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/both-ageing-societies-declining-populations-and-growing-youthful-ones-face-serious)

Syllabus block:

 

Key skill development:

Identification (AO1)

Description (AO2)

Inquiry, Geographical Reasoning and Analysis (A03)

 

Key terms:

Population structure

Population Pyramid

Old Age population

Youthful population

Dependency ratio

Economic Active Workforce

Demographic Dividend

Causes (STEEP)

Consequences (STEEP)

L.O: To inquire about two contrasting countries in terms of population structure and change…Italy & Nigeria

The Geo-Inquiry Process: Ask (develop question), Collect (acquire information), Visualize (analyze information), Create (develop stories), Act (share stories)

 

Starter – Task 1:

Describe the key differences between the population pyramids of Italy and Botswana…

(think about sounding like a geographer, focusing on the key words from the below list in your response)

  • The youthful population at the base/narrow (convex)?/expansive (concave)? What’s it like?
  • The old age population at the top/narrow (convex)?/expansive (concave)? What’s it like?
  • The economic active workforce (The demographic dividend) in the middle/narrow (convex)?/expansive (concave)? What’s it like?

 

.

 

(source of both population pyramids: www.google.com)

 

Development –  Task 2:

The Geo-Inquiry process into Italy and its population structure…

 

G128 – Italy (Italian) Flag | 3x5 feet | Printed – Vibrant Colors, Brass Grommets, Quality Polyester

Map 1: Location of Italy in Europe on an international scale

(source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_it.html)

Map 2: National scaled map of Italy

(source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_it.html)

 

ASK…

What questions could we ask about this typical scenario in Italy? How can we understand more about the Population Structure?

 

Growing old in Italy: Italians live longer but suffer more

(source: https://www.thelocal.it/20170926/life-expectancy-is-rising-in-italy-but-the-elderly-struggle-with-health-problems)

 

 Collect…use the resources below to inquire about Italy’s population structure and the reasons why it is an ageing population. Use the task sheet link below to structure your inquiry

 

Inquiry into Italy and Nigeria population structures…

 

Italy’s Natural Increase…

Multimedia…

(source: www.youtube.com)

 

Italy’s Fertility Rate

 

Articles…

 

 https://www.ft.com/content/a9d1fe0c-2306-11ea-92da-f0c92e957a96

 

https://www.thelocal.it/20200714/italys-birth-rate-drops-again-except-in-one-province

 

Italy’s Life Expectancy

Mapping…

 

Regional mortality differences in life expectancy at birth for Italian men, measured for " Regioni " classified in units of the standard deviation (σ = 0.64)  

Italy’s Population structure/Dependency Ratio

 

Graphing…

 

Population pyramid 3: Italy in 1950 (source: https://www.populationpyramid.net/italy/1950/)

 

Key Question: Describe and explain the causes of Italy’s population structure (6marks)

 

The Geo-Inquiry process into Nigeria and its population structure…

 

 

Map 4: Location of Nigeria on an international scale (source: www.google.com)

ASK…

What questions could we ask about this typical scenario in Nigeria? How can we understand more about the Population Structure?

 Collect…use the resources below to inquire about Botswana’s population structure and the reasons why it is a youthful population with such a growing demographic dividend. Use the same task sheet you have been using for Italy…
Nigeria’s Natural Increase…
Multimedia…

 

Nigeria’s Fertility Rate…

Article…

 https://theconversation.com/niger-has-the-worlds-highest-birth-rate-and-that-may-be-a-recipe-for-unrest-108654

Chart…
Nigeria’s Life Expectancy
Graph…
Proshare Nigeria Pvt. Ltd.
Multimedia…

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uSx9Pw4rf64)

 

Nigeria’s Population structure/Dependency Ratio

 

Graphing…

Population pyramid 5: Italy in 1950 (source: https://www.populationpyramid.net/nigeria/1950/)

Population pyramid 6: Nigeria in 2020 (source: www.google.com)

 

Webpage…BBC

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-sh/lagos

 

Key Question: Describe and explain the causes of Nigeria’s population structure (6marks)

Bring it al together in an exam setting CREATING a response to your homework question…

Homework Task: Attempt this 10mark question taken from Section C on paper 2 of your IB assessment…(use the link below to help your structure your response and access the markbands on the page too from the syllabus)
Q. Using examples you have studied, explain the consequences of an ageing and youthful population structure (10marks)

 

Lessons 1&2: Population change and demographic transition over time…

Lessons 1&2: Population change and demographic transition over time…

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The Geo-Inquiry Process: Ask (develop question), Collect (acquire information), Visualize (analyze information), Create (develop stories), Act (share stories)

Syllabus block: 

L.O: To  develop the ability to understand demography and how it has changed over time.

To inquire about two contrasting countries in terms of their demography changes

 

Key skill development:

Identification (AO1)

Classification of Causes (AO1)

Geographical Explanation and Evaluation (AO3)

Research Inquiry

 

Key terms:

Demography

Natural Increase

Fertility Rate

Life Expectancy

Population Structure

Dependency Ratios

Rapid Growth

Causes – SEEP

 

Starter – Task 1: Population Infographic work…

Observe the below information on the world’s population and answer the following questions about this infographic:

  1. Identify the continents that will increase in population by 2050 (1mark)
  2. Identify the continents that will decrease in population by 2050 (1mark)
  3. State one probable cause for the increase in one of the continents (1mark)
  4. State one probable cause for the decrease in one of the continents (1mark)

(source: https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/financial-services/projectblue/demographic-change.html)

 

SO WHY IS THERE DIFFERENT RATES OF POPULATION CHANGE OVER TIME IN DIFFERENT PLACES AROUND THE WORLD???

Lets INQUIRE about this key geographical question…

 

Development – Research & Collect, Task 2: Use the resources below and complete the task sheet link to help you achieve this lessons objective at understanding the different reasons for different rates of population change over time in different locations around the world…

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1tUZ0sKnJusimkVQjMCA6LPWRFgll22bSIkBu4k3Bckg/edit

 

Natural Increase…

 

Definition –  https://www.insee.fr/en/metadonnees/definition/c1110

 

Visual…

World map showing rate of natural increase by country, 2018

(The rate of natural increase around the world, 2018: https://populationeducation.org/what-is-rate-of-natural-increase-rni/)

 

Multimedia…

(source: youtube)

 

Articles…

 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-53424726

 https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/datablog/2016/jun/28/over-populated-or-under-developed-real-story-population-growth

 

Fertility Rate…

 

Definition –  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_fertility_rate

 

Visual…

Total Fertility Rate…

Total Fertility Rate by Country

(source: http://chartsbin.com/view/33935)

 

 

Multimedia…

 

(source: youtube)

 

Articles…

 

  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/aug/03/womans-choice-fertility-rates

 https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2020/jul/06/more-women-like-me-are-choosing-to-be-childfree-is-this-the-age-of-opting-out

 

Life Expectancy…

 

Definition –  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_expectancy

 

Visual…                                                              (click into image to get full version)

(Life expectancy at birth, measured by region, between 1950 and 2050 – source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_expectancy)

Multimedia…

(source: www.youtube.com)

Articles…

 https://www.theguardian.com/news/2020/feb/24/the-100-year-life-how-to-prolong-a-healthy-mind

 https://www.bbc.com/news/health-49844804

Population structure and dependency ratios…

Definition Population structure –  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_structure

Definition Dependency ratio –   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependency_ratio

 

Visual…

Ficheiro:World population pyramid (2018).jpg

(source: https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficheiro:World_population_pyramid_(2018).jpg)

 

 

Infographic map – The projected old-age dependency ratio for each country in the European Union will pose a problem long after the debt crisis resolves. What Is Europe, Aging Population, Human Geography, Old Age, Big Challenge, Space Travel, Cartography, Data Visualization
(source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/461830136765159713/)
(source: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/08/youngest-populations-africa/)

Multimedia…

(source: www.youtube.com)

Articles…

wp-svg-icons icon=”link” wrap=”i”] https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/08/youngest-populations-africa/

wp-svg-icons icon=”link” wrap=”i”] https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/15/dementia-towns-japan-ageing-population

Plenary – Task 3: Answer the following three exam style questions from the IB…
1) Define life expectancy (2marks)
2) Explain the impacts that an ageing population can have on a population structure (6marks)

 

Lessons 5&6: The Consequences of Mega City Growth…

Lessons 5&6: The Consequences of Mega City Growth…

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The Geo-Inquiry Process: Ask (develop question), Collect (acquire information), Visualize (analyze information), Create (develop stories), Act (share stories)

 

 

Syllabus block: 

L.O: To know the consequences of megacity growth for individuals and societies through the use of one case study of a contemporary megacity experiencing rapid growth…Lagos, Nigeria (LIC)

 

Key skill development:

Identification (AO1)

Classification of Consequences (AO1)

Geographical Explanation and Evaluation (AO3)

Research Inquiry

 

Key terms:

Mega City

LIC

Rapid Growth

Urbanisation of Poverty

High population density

Slums

Social Polarization

Consequences – Advantages/Disadvantages

 

Starter – Task 1: Describe the location of Lagos, Nigeria…remember the skill of OSO when describing locations on maps

  1. Describe something OBVIOUS about the location
  2. Describe something SPECIFIC about the location
  3. Describe something ODD about the location

Image result for obvious specific odd

 

Lagos, Nigeria map

(source of map: https://www.voanews.com/africa/nigeria-tech-enclave-springs-lagos-suburb)

 

Development – Task 2 – Collect, identify &  Classify: Use the many resources below on the growth of Lagos as a Mega City and the consequences and use the below link task sheet to help identify and classify these consequences into ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES for the individuals and societies of Lagos…

 

Consequences of Mega City Growth – Lagos, Nigeria

 

Resource 1: Short documentary on the Makoko slum in Lagos and how the people of this area are being impacted upon by Lagos’ rapid growth…

 

 

Resource 2: Photograph analysis… This is a typical scene in Lagos at 8.30am on a weekday morning. What impacts might this be having on the individuals and societies of the city? Access the below link too to read more…

 

Lagos Traffic – A Never Ending Tale

(source: https://landlagos.com/blog/lagos-traffic-a-never-ending-tale/)

 

 

Resource 3: Articles on the Mega City growth of Lagos…Read the two article and try to identify, classify and explain the impacts taking place on the individuals and societies of Lagos as the city continues to grow…

Article 1:

 

https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/lagos-city-dreams-and-nightmares

 

Article 2: 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2018/mar/19/urban-explosion-kinshasa-el-alto-growth-mexico-city-bangalore-lagos

 

 

 

Resource 4: Access your Geography IBDP text book…Access the relevant chapter to explore the impacts of Mega City rapid growth on individuals and societies – THERE ARE OTHER EXAMPLES HERE TOO YOU CAN USE…

 

Wook.pt - Ib Geography Course Book 2nd Edition: Oxford Ib Diploma Programme

 

 

 

Task 3: Plenary…Exam Question Practice…

Q. “To the local population, megacities have more advantages than disadvantages.” Discuss this statement. [10]

 

Access the below link to support your structuring of your response to the question…

 

10mark Extended Answer Questions – Support From Geoschooley…

 

And here is an example paragraph to the above question to help you…

https://docs.google.com/document/d/16sIw_a_byPz6ETuBrJC8sQbi-kjcaEDpQmuCgx0CwFA/edit

 

 

Have we achieved today’s learning objective???

 

L.O: To know the consequences of megacity growth for individuals and societies through the use of one case study of a contemporary megacity experiencing rapid growth…Lagos, Nigeria (LIC)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lessons 4&5: Resource stewardship strategies…

Lessons 4&5: Resource stewardship strategies…

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What is a circular economy?

1) Design out waste and pollution

2) Keep products and materials in use

Regenerate natural systems

 

 

 

 

A circular economy seeks to rebuild capital, whether this is financial, manufactured, human, social or natural. This ensures enhanced flows of goods and services. The system diagram illustrates the continuous flow of technical and biological materials through the ‘value circle’.

System diagram cropped

 

Lesson 1: Physical and Human factors affecting population distribution at the global scale

Lesson 1: Physical and Human factors affecting population distribution at the global scale

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The Geo-Inquiry Process: Ask (develop question), Collect (acquire information), Visualize (analyze information), Create (develop stories), Act (share stories)

L.O: To know the physical and human factors affecting population distribution at the global scale

 

(A suggested world’s population distribution in 2050, with the countries size on the map representing the size of the population – source: https://worldmapper.org/maps/population-year-2050/)

 

Key skill development:

 

Identification

Research Inquiry

Classification

 

Key terms:

Physical factors

Human factors

Population distribution

Population density

Unevenly distributed

SEEP (Social Economical, Environmental, Political) causes

 

Starter – Task 1, Ask: Look at the map above suggesting world’s population distribution in 2050 – with the countries size on the map representing the size of the population. Describe the world’s population distribution according to the map…

(This type of question would normally be around 3marks in an exam)

 

 

 

Development – Task 2 Collect: So why is the world’s population so unevenly distributed…?

Use the resources that follow to complete the below worksheet link:

 

Human and Physical Factors Task Sheet

 

 

(video 1: source – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzWN1OUVu60)

 

(video 2: source – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMOat3MAxIw)

 

 

World natural disasters infographics with map and earthquake tsunami drought volcano hurricane Free Vector

(Infograph 1 – The location of the world’s biggest natural disasters: https://www.freepik.com/free-vector/world-natural-disasters-infographics-with-map-earthquake-tsunami-drought-volcano-hurricane_2873365.htm

 

 

Infographic. population of people.

(Infograph 2 – The location of men and women around the world: https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-infographic-population-people-vector-image42974940)

 

(Map 3: The World’s Mountain Ranges: https://bioone.org/journals/mountain-research-and-development/volume-38/issue-3/MRD-JOURNAL-D-17-00107.1/A-New-High-Resolution-Map-of-World-Mountains-and-an/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-17-00107.1.full)
(Article 1: Population policies in China)
(Article 2: Population boom in Africa)
Q. Explain reasons for the uneven distribution of the world’s population (2+2+2)
Infographic - hospital occupancy Japanese prefectures COVID-19
Picture