Category: 3. IGCSE Cambridge 2020-21 Syllabus

A wide variety of lesson materials and objectives that follow the current IGCSE Cambridge syllabus – focusing on the three themes of population and settlement/natural environments/and
economic development for paper 1, geographical skills and map skills for paper 2, and paper 3 coursework support.

Geoschooley techniques to help with answering exam questions…

Geoschooley techniques to help with answering exam questions…

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Technique 1: BUG the question…

 

Technique 2: Use OSO to describe diagrams, maps, photographs and key patterns and trends on graphs…

 

Technique 3: Use PEEL to structure those paragraphs in your Extended Answer Questions…

 

 

Technique 4: Use STEEP to classify the causes and consequences to your case studies and examples…

 

 

 

Technique 5: Plan your Extended Answer Questions in a quick fashion during the exam using the following fast technique…

 

 

 

Technique 6: Create your own key word bank to take words from for your Extended Answer Questions so that you can sound like a geographer when answering the question…

 

 

Lessons 4&5: The hierarchy of settlements and services…

Lessons 4&5: The hierarchy of settlements and services…

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L.O: To be able to explain the reasons for the hierarchy of settlements and services

 

Settlement hierarchy
(source: https://www.thinglink.com/scene/884426268353757184)
Key skill development:
Identification
Geographical Reasoning
Photograph Analysis
Key terms:
Settlement Hierarchy
High-, middle- and low-order settlements and services.
Sphere of influence
threshold population
Starter – Task 1: Look at photograph 1 below and try to answer the below inquiry questions…
What services can you see?
Who do you think lives or works there?
How many people can you see?
Why do you think so many people are there?
Where could this be?
Photograph 1: A city centre

Glasgow Scotland Busy City Centre in the Rain Stock Photo

(source: https://www.alamy.com/glasgow-scotland-busy-city-centre)
So what is the settlement hierarchy???
settlement hierarchy is a way of arranging settlements into a hierarchy based upon their population size and number of services available…

Picture

(source: https://crystalsamuel.weebly.com/settlement.html)

 

Development – Task 2: Complete the following activities to become more familiar with the settlement hierarchy so that you can explain the reasons for the hierarchy of settlements and services…

 

Define the following key terms (use your ipads):

Settlement Hierarchy
High-, middle- and low-order settlements and services
Conurbation
Sphere of influence
threshold population

 

Make a sketch diagram of the settlement hierarchy above in your notes…On your diagrams can you annotate:

  1. The population size usually founded in that settlement
  2. The types of services you would expect to see and whether they are High, middle or low order services
  3. An example location of this settlement type

 

Next, look at the photographs below and answer the questions with each one:

 

Photograph 2:

1)  Identify the type of settlement in the photograph (1mark)

2) Explain why you chose this settlement (5marks)

 

Photograph 3:

1)  Identify the  type of settlement in the photograph (1mark)

2) Explain why you chose this settlement (5marks)

 

Photograph 4:

antalya turkey turkish city cities sprawl sprawling urban landscape high rise building conurbation conurbations Stock Photo

1)  Identify the type of settlement in the photograph (1mark)

2) Explain why you chose this settlement (5marks)

 

Photograph 5:

Illustrative image of a small city / village

1)  Identify the type of settlement in the photograph (1mark)

2) Explain why you chose this settlement (5marks)

 

Photograph 6:

 

 

Braga, Land of Tradition and Innovation - imagem #2

1)  Identify the type of settlement in the photograph (1mark)

2) Explain why you chose this settlement (5marks)

Photograph 7:

Rural House iStock

1)  Identify the type of settlement in the photograph (1mark)

2) Explain why you chose this settlement (5marks)

 

 

Plenary – Task 3: Practice exam question…

 

 

Q. Using examples, explain the settlement hierarchy (5marks)

 

Picture

 

Homework Task:  

Look at the below diagram.

 

Picture

Sphere of influence of a settlement (source: https://www.thegeographeronline.net/settlements.html)
Lessons 2&3: Factors influencing the sites, growth and functions of settlements…

Lessons 2&3: Factors influencing the sites, growth and functions of settlements…

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Germany, Bavaria, Wolfratshausen, Aerial view of countryside town Stock Photo

Germany, Bavaria, Wolfratshausen, Aerial view of countryside town
(source: Google Earth)

 

L.O: Describe and explain the factors which may influence the sites, growth and functions of settlements

 

Key Skill Development:

Identification & Description

Geographical Explanation

 

Key Terms:

Site

Situation

Settlement

Growth

Function

Factors (Physical/Human) – relief, soil, water supply and other factors including accessibility, resources

 

 

(source: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/settling-mars/?utm_source=BibblioRCM_Row#mars-novo-mundo)

 

  Task 2 – definitions : Using your ipads research and define today’s key terms…(Resource 1 in todays lesson below can help too).

 

Task 2 – Research & Collect: Use the video clip below and fill in the below table link to explore different factors that affect settlement location (no need to explain anything, just identify and classify as many factors as you can…)

Identification table of physical and human factors affecting settlement location

 

Resource 1: Youtube clip on Why are towns and cities found in certain places?

(source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msQb9b064hg)

 

(source: https://slideplayer.com/slide/6148949/)

Key Questions…taken from previous IGCSE papers…

Define what the physical aspect is (2marks) (you may need your ipad for this to just quickly research)

Define what a bridging point is (2marks)

Define what a nodal point is (2marks)

Describe what a wet point site is. (3marks)

Describe what a dry point site is. (3marks)

Describe what a defensive site is. (3marks)

 

Development – Task 3: Access the link below to the task sheet and complete the table by looking at each photograph and using your knowledge from the previous tasks…

Photograph and explanation exercise of factors affecting site, location and function of a settlement tasksheet

Plenary: 

Explain the differences between site , situation and settlement on the IGCE curriculum.

 

Israeli settlement of Givat Zeev, near the Palestinian city of Ramallah in the occupied West Bank, on 19 November 2019 [AHMAD GHARABLI/AFP/Getty Images]

Israeli settlement of Givat Zeev, near the Palestinian city of Ramallah in the occupied West Bank, on 19 November 2019 [AHMAD GHARABLI/AFP/Getty Images]

 

The UAE normalise ties with Israel - Cartoon [Sabaaneh/MiddleEastMonitor]

The UAE normalise ties with Israel – Cartoon [Sabaaneh/MiddleEastMonitor]

Categories

IsraelMiddle EastNewsPalestine

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Lesson 1: The Patterns of Settlement…

Lesson 1: The Patterns of Settlement…

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1 Nucleated Village (Modified from Google Earth Pro). 
(source: Google Earth)

 

L.O: To be able to explain the patterns of settlement

 

Key Skill Development:

Identification

Geographical Explanation

 

Key Terms:

Linear

Nucleated

Dispersed

Isoloated

Starter – Task 1: Look at the photograph below and in pairs, try to identify physical reasons that could attract the formation of a settlement in this area…

 

Key Question…Why do you think this settlement has formed like this?

 

(source: google search engine)

 

 

Development – Task 2: Identifying and Explaining the different settlement types…

 

Early settlers forming villages in the rural areas would often live together for safety, for friendship, and to share services. These early settlements would take on distinctive patterns based on the shape of the land around them. Here we can see some examples of different settlement patterns. (source: http://onezerosixgeographers.blogspot.com/)

 

Look at the below photographs and answer the questions underneath each one…(source of all photographs google search engine)

 

Photographs of settlement types for your notes

Photograph 1:

Linear settlement Dakota39s blog 8a

  1) Identify the settlement type (1mark)

2) Describe its main features (3marks)

2) Explain why this settlement took this formation (annotate your photo with key features) (5marks)

 

Photograph 2.

  1) Identify the settlement type (1mark)

2) Describe its main features (3marks)

2) Explain why this settlement took this formation(annotate your photo with key features) (5marks)

 

Photograph 3:

Looking down on rooftops of nucleated village Garganta la Olla, La Vera, Extremadura, Spain Stock Photo

  1) Identify the settlement type (1mark)

2) Describe its main features (3marks)

2) Explain why this settlement took this formation(annotate your photo with key features) (5marks)

 

Photograph 4:

Picture

  1) Identify the settlement type (1mark)

2) Describe its main features (3marks)

2) Explain why this settlement took this formation(annotate your photo with key features) (5marks)

 

 

Plenary – Task 3: Geography Poetry…

 

                        As a final task today, try to create an 8 line descriptive poem of a settlement type of your choice. Try to use words that connect to that settlement and most all be CREATIVE, use ADJECTIVES and put your HEART into it…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 8: A deeper look into population pyramids…

Lesson 8: A deeper look into population pyramids…

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L.O: To further develop our knowledge of population pyramids through group work and exam practice…

Task 1: In your groups of 4 assign yourself a student role (A,B,C &D) and try to perform the task that is described in each role so that we can workout where this population pyramid comes from?

WHAT CAUSED SUCH A GENDER IMBALANCE???

Student A:

Student A, using the key terminology from your previous lesson, can you describe the shape of this population pyramid (to help think of the “Gucci Geography” words identified – convex sides/concave sides/straight sides; contracting/expanding/stationary; narrow base or top/bulging middle; pyramid/oval/”coffin” shaped). Try to aim for a description of approximately 100 words so that you can be sure you have enough detail…

 

Student B:

Student B, You are to focus on the different sections of this population and try to answer the following questions:

The youthful dependent population (age 0-19):

1) Identify the total number of youthful dependent populous – be as accurate as possible

2) Explain the possible reasons for this total number in this section of the population

 

The Economic Active Workforce (age 20-69):

1) Identify the total number of economic active populous – be as accurate as possible

2) Explain the possible reasons for this total number in this section of the population

 

The old aged dependent population (age 70+):

1) Identify the total number of old age dependent populous – be as accurate as possible

2) Explain the possible reasons for this total number in this section of the population

 

Student C:

Student C is to concentrate on the causes of this gender imbalance of the Population Pyramid. Using SEEP  classification (Social, Economic, Environmental & Political) can you identify the different reasons why such a gender imbalance could have taken place?

 

Student D:

Student D is to focus on what the possible consequences could be of a population having this structure. Using SEEP  classification (Social, Economic, Environmental & Political) can you identify the different consequences of having such a gender imbalance in a country?

 

***IF ONE STUDENT COMPLETES THEIR TASK EARLIER THAN OTHERS THEN THAT STUDFENT SHOULD HELP YOUR TEAM MATES COMPLETE THEIR TASK***

 

 

GCSE PE (9-1) 5 a day practice exam questions – 2019 Series – Edexcel – AQA – OCR

Exam style question for you to practice:

Q. Using a population you have studied – discuss the causes and consequences of a gender imbalance in population(7marks)

Use the below framework to help structure your response!

Easy Framework to use for long responses in IGCSE Geography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(source:www.coolgeography.com)

 

 

Lessons 9&10: Population distribution and density…

Lessons 9&10: Population distribution and density…

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Title: Population distribution and density…

 

L.O: To be able to describe the factors influencing the density and distribution of population

Key terms/phrases:

Population distribution

Population density

Densely populated

Sparsely populated

Key questions:

Lesson starter: Task 1: Analyse the map underneath and attempt the task.

 

Image result for world population distribution
Map showing population distribution and levels of population density around the world. The darker the red the more people in the region.
Q. Describe the world’s population distribution (3marks)
(Tip – Can you OSO this map? Remember OSO stands for describing something:
OBVIOUS

SPECIFIC

Image result for obvious specific odd
ODD
This technique will help you achieve 3marks…
Main development:
Task 2: Factors that affect population distribution and density…create a table highlighting the human and physical factors that affect population distribution and density

Task 3: Show your understanding of population distribution and population density by completing the worksheet links…

Task 4: Case study revision sheets…

Using your course text books (PGS. 34-37) and google search engine – you are to create two contrasting case studies of high and low population density focusing on Japan and Namibia.

Use the link below as a way of structuring your case studies…

 

how to structure your population density case studies

 

Review: Create three exam style questions of your own that could have the information below as some of the answers

Factors Affecting Population Density

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 7: Different types of Population structure…

Lesson 7: Different types of Population structure…

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Title: Different types of population structure

L.O: To be able to identify and give reasons for and implications of different types of population structure

Key terms/phrases:

Population pyramids

Concave

Convex

Economic Active Workforce

Old age dependents

Young age dependents

Dependency ratio

Demographic dividend

Key question: What factors might cause countries to have different population structures?

Lesson starter: Watch the below clip and answer the following questions:

Q. What is a population pyramid?

Q.  How do they help you understand the structure of a countries population structure?

 

 

Image result for image different population pyramids

 Population Pyramid Worksheet (activity derived from www.geographyalltheway.com)

 

Review: Look at the below population pyramids annotate them with appropriate descriptive words about their shape (think about describing the whole pyramid and the key words at the start of the lesson)

 

Image result for image different population pyramids
Exam Practice:
Q. A country that has an ageing population also has a high dependent population, using a country you have studied, describe the impacts of an ageing population on a country (think of your previous case study!!!)(7marks)

 

Lesson 11&12: The Reasons for Population Migration and its Impacts

Lesson 11&12: The Reasons for Population Migration and its Impacts

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Title: The Reasons for Population Migration and its Impacts

L.O: To be able to explain and give reasons for population migration.

To demonstrate an understanding of the impacts of migration

Key terms/phrases:

Migration

Push Factors

Pull Factors

Rural-Urban migration (internal migration)

International migration

Voluntary

Involuntary

SEEP impacts

key questions/points: Internal movements such as rural-urban migration, as well as international migrations, both voluntary and involuntary

Lesson Starter: Task 1: Define the key terms above in your notes.

Then, watch the Andrew Marr Mega Cities short film to gain an understanding of why people are moving to city…(can just view the first ten minutes to help with a lesson starter activity)

 

Main Development: So why do people migrate?

Image result for lees model of migration

Lee’s model of migration helps us to understand the “push” and “pull” factors that help us to understand why people are moving from the rural countryside to the urban city areas/ or from country to country…

Task 2: Group work (3-4): Make a copy of the above diagram in your notes. Can you then make a table with two columns and discuss in your groups possible push and pull factors for migration and fill in your tables with as many ideas as you can…

Image result for table blank two columns
Discuss as a whole class your ideas about examples of push and pull factors….
Task 3: Case study – China’s Internal migration…
Use the resources below to create a 5W case study on China’s internal migration. Start off with reading the newspaper extract from pg. 25 in your course text books…
Image result for cambridge igcse geo book
  1. What kind of migration is it and what is the situation in terms of numbers
  2. When did people start migrating (can you also produce a timeline of the before, during and after key events surrounding the migration)
  3. Who is migrating? Specifics?
  4. Where are they coming from and where are they migrating to? Specific areas?
  5. Why are they migrating? (Explain your answer in a s much detail as possible)
  6. Identify the SEEP impacts of the migration on the origin place (where they have come) and the destination place (where they have moved to) (make a table with bullet point list for your notes)

A map to show internal migration patterns within China (source www.geogalot.com)

Image result for se asia
Use the resources below to create a 5W case study on the international migration into Qatar. Start off with reading from pgs. 26-27 in your course text books…
Image result for cambridge igcse geo book
  1. What kind of migration is it and what is the situation in terms of numbers
  2. When did people start migrating (can you also produce a timeline of the before, during and after key events surrounding the migration)
  3. Who is migrating? Specifics?
  4. Where are they coming from and where are they migrating to? Specific areas?
  5. Why are they migrating? (Explain your answer in a s much detail as possible)
  6. Identify the SEEP impacts of the migration on the origin place (where they have come) and the destination place (where they have moved to) (make a table with bullet point list for your notes)
Image result for migration in qatar

Map showing where migrants are coming from into Qatar

 

Key articles to help your research with videos:

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jul/28/-sp-qatar-migrants-tower-football-world-cup

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jul/28/qatar-world-cup-migrants-not-paid-building-office

https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/insidestory/2012/06/201261472812737158.html

 

Review: exam style questions:

Q. Define the term internal migration (1mark)

Q. Describe where migrants come from in Qatar (3marks)

Q. Explain the push factors for internal migrants in China (5marks)

 

Case study covered:

An international migration

 

 

 

Lessons 5&6: Changes in Population Size – Population Policies…

Lessons 5&6: Changes in Population Size – Population Policies…

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Title: Pro-Natalist and Anti-Natalist Population Policies:

L.O: To know how pro-natalist and anti-natalist population policies impact upon the population size of a country and to evaluate a case study country for each policy

key terms/phrases:

Population policy

Pro-Natalist policy

Anti-Natalist policy

Fertility Rate

Birth Rate

SEEP Impacts (social, economical, environmental, political)

Key questions: Why might a country introduce such policies? How might government population policies impact upon birth and death rates?

 

Pro-Natalist Policies 

Image result for singapore flag

Image result for cartoon baby

Lesson starter: We are going to start with looking at a pro-natalist population policy case study. To start off with we need to define what we mean by “pro-natalist policy”. In pairs, work to find the answers to the below two questions either using your mobile devices or course text books (pgs 20-21 can help you)…

Q. Define the term pro-natalist policy (1mark)

Q. Suggest three reasons why a country might decide to bring out this kind of policy

Image result for cambridge igcse geog book

Main development…

Case study – Singapore’s Pro-Natalist Policy Image result for singapore flag

 

 

You are going to conduct a 5W Enquiry into why Singapore introduced their pro-natalist policy. You can use the resources embedded on this page or from your course text books or from the google search engine.

Your case study in your notes must follow the following framework of questions:

  1. What were the specifics to the policy (we know its pro-birth but can you explain any other points)
  2. When was the policy first introduced (can you also produce a timeline of the before, during and after key events surrounding the polciy?)
  3. Who implemented the policy?
  4. Where was the policy put into place (was there a difference in level of policy implementation bewteen the rural and urban areas?)
  5. Why was the policy implemented? (Explain your answer in a s much detail as possible)
  6. Identify the SEEP impacts of the policy (make a table with bullet point list for your notes)

Answer the questions as as detailed as you can for your review exam style question at the end…

 

Image result for singapore population pyramid 1985

 

Image result for singapore population pyramid 2018

 

Image result for map singapore pro natalist policy
Key articles that can help your research:
Review: Exam style question…
Q. Using a pro-natalist case study you have researched, describe and evaluate the level of success the policy had (7marks)
Tips to help with this question:
Case study – China’s Anti-Natalist Policy (the one child policy)
Image result for flag of china
Image result for cartoon one child policy

You are going to conduct a 5W Enquiry into why China introduced their anti-natalist policy. You can use the resources embedded on this page or from your course text books or from the google search engine.

Your case study in your notes must follow the following framework of questions:

  1. What were the specifics to the policy (we know its anti-birth but can you explain any other points)
  2. When was the policy first introduced (can you also produce a timeline of the before, during and after key events surrounding the policy? Why has the policy now changed to a “two child policy” since 2016?)
  3. Who implemented the policy?
  4. Where was the policy put into place (was there a difference in level of policy implementation between the rural and urban areas?)
  5. Why was the policy implemented? (Explain your answer in a s much detail as possible)
  6. Identify the SEEP impacts of the policy (make a table with a bullet point list for your notes)

Answer the questions as as detailed as you can for your review exam style question at the end…

Image result for population pyramid china 1978
Image result for population pyramid china 2018
Image result for china's one child policy
Key articles that can help your research:
Review: Exam style question…
Q. Using a anti-natalist case study you have researched, describe and evaluate the level of success the policy had (7marks)
Tips to help with question:
Introduction:
Begin with identifying your case study and delivering opening statement – state whether you think the policy was a success or not, that way you are dealing with answering the question straight away. Then identify the factors/points you want to discuss in your main body of text that will help support your point of view, for example:
“In focusing on China’s one child policy that was originally put into place in 1979, I believe that this policy, in terms of slowing the birth rate of the country was a success as the rate dropped dramatically over the following the 30years. However this, from my opinion, came at a huge cost to the people of China as huge human rights issues came about including forced abortions; economic
Main development:
conclusion:

 

Lessons 3&4: Causes of changes in Population Size – Ageing/Youthful Populations…

Lessons 3&4: Causes of changes in Population Size – Ageing/Youthful Populations…

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Title: Causes of changes in Population Size

L.O: To know the main causes of a change in population size

Key Terms/phrases:

Ageing population

Youthful Population

Population Policies

HIV/Aids epidemic

Physical and Human causes

Positive and Negative SEEP IMPACTS

 Key questions:

Explain the Impacts of social, economic and other factors (including government policies, HIV/AIDS) on birth and death rates

Key skills:

Identification

Reasoning

Team work

Case Study construction

Lesson starter: Task 1: Paired work: Look at the cartoon pictures below and with one sentence identify how it could cause birth rates to fall

Image result for cartoon old people

Image result for cartoon women need more rest

 

Image result for cartoon contraception´

 

Image result for cartoon married couple

 

Image result for cartoon family planning
Image result for cartoon no child labour
Image result for cartoon less infant mortality

 

Main Development:

Image result for elderly people road sign

Task 2: Falling birth rates (population decline)

Case Study of Population Decline – Italy, Southern Europe

Ageing populations can be studied at a national scale or at a smaller scale at the town and city level.

An ageing population is where the proportion of old people is increasing, becoming greater than the younger proportion

 

Image result for population pyramid italy 2019

Study Italy’s population pyramid above from 2016.

Describe the shape of the pyramid (words that could help could be narrow base, oval shaped, convex shaped, expansive middle)

Next is an article that reports on a village in Italy, its ageing population and its impacts on falling birth rates. Read it and then answer the questions that follow:

Vastogirardi

 

Italian village’s mayor hopes tax on singles leads to babies

Too busy hunting boar, making wine or playing soccer to settle down, the aging bachelors of a dying Italian village have been catapulted to infamy by their mayor’s ultimatum: Marry or pay a singles’ tax.

Vastogirardi, founded almost 2,000 years ago on a mountain in southern Italy, will soon cease to exist unless its citizens start having children, Mayor Vincenzo Venditti said.

In the latest symptom of a demographic time bomb that church and state have been powerless to defuse, the mayor has declared war on the self-sufficient old boys who cluster in bars every night and return to empty homes.

Venditti intends to levy a tax on the 50 men and 20 women who show no desire to marry or have children despite prominently advertised government aid to families.

“We are reaching the point of no return. When the school dies, society dies,” he said. Funerals in the village outnumber weddings by 3 to 1. There is no secondary school, not enough children to fill the primary school and the kindergarten will close within three years unless more babies are born.

One was born last year, none this year.

In three decades, the population has shriveled from more than 3,000 to 823. Once famed for its delicate, handmade mozzarella cheese, Vastogirardi no longer has a bank, plumber, shoemaker or priest.

But for the bachelors, life is sweet. Hunting, fishing, a soccer field, three bars and wine-making fill their free time. Some of them have been engaged to the same woman for 20 years.

“It suits us,” said Antonio Bisciotti, 29, sitting in the Bar Central with friends. “We’re lazy. We like our lives.”

The bachelors are not intimidated by the proposed tax; it would most likely be declared unconstitutional. But the proposal has hit a nerve in a country where the average birthrate of 1.2 children per woman is the lowest in the world.

Many bachelors are part of Italy’s army of so-called mammoni, grown-up sons who never leave their mothers and the comforts of home. The phenomenon carries no stigma in Italy.

Like their male counterparts, the village’s new generation of educated, career-driven women are in no rush to bag partners. Vincenza Marracino, 43, returned 16 years ago after studying in Rome to build the village’s only pharmacy. A family would come second, if at all.

Q1. Describe Italy’s baby crisis

 

 

 

Q2. Make a list of 5 changes happening in the village of Vastogiradi as it gets smaller

 

 

 

 

Q3. Why Is Italy’s birth rate falling so rapidly? Give three reasons

 

 

Q4. Describe and Explain three changes on Italy if the population structure changes in all villages

 

Extension: Read about a possible management solution for the problems in Italy.

 

Task 3: High rate of natural population growth rate (youthful population)

Case study of high natural population growth rate – Uganda, Africa

A youthful population is where the proportion of young people is increasing, becoming greater than the adult population

Image result for population pyramid uganda 2016

Study Uganda’s population pyramid above from 2016.

Describe the shape of the pyramid (words that could help could be narrow top, pyramid shaped, concave, expansive base)

Below is an article that reports on Africa’s and Uganda’s growing youthful populations. Read it and then answer the questions that follow:

 

High birthrate threatens to trap Africa in cycle of poverty

There are 27.7 million people in Uganda. But by 2025 the population will almost double to 56 million, close to that of Britain, which has a similar land mass. In 44 years its population will have grown by nearly as much as China’s.

“You look at these numbers and think ‘that’s impossible’,” said Carl Haub, senior demographer at the US-based Population Reference Bureau, whose latest global projections show Uganda as the fastest-growing country in the world. Midway through the 21st century, if current birthrates persist, Uganda will be the world’s 12th most populous country with 130 million people – more than Russia or Japan.

Startling as they are, the projections are feasible, and a glance at some of the variables shows why. A typical Ugandan woman gives birth to seven children – an extraordinarily high fertility rate that has remained largely unchanged for more than 30 years. Half the population is under 15, and will soon move into childbearing age. Only one in five married women has access to contraception.

Taken together, the factors point to a population explosion that has demographers and family planning experts warning that efforts to cut poverty are doomed unless urgent measures are taken.

And not just in Uganda. Across much of sub-Saharan Africa the population is expanding so quickly that the planet’s demographic map is changing.

In the rest of world, including developing nations in Asia and South America, fertility rates have steadily declined to an average of 2.3 children to each mother. Most will experience only modest population growth in coming decades. Some countries, particularly in eastern Europe, will see their numbers decline.

But by 2050 Chad, Mali, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Niger, Burundi and Malawi – all among the poorest nations in the world – are projected to triple in size. Nigeria will have become the world’s fourth-biggest country. The Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia will have vaulted into the top 10 for the first time. Nearly one in four of the world’s population will come from Africa – up from one in seven today.

“What’s happening is alarming and depressing,” said Jotham Musinguzi, director of the population secretariat in Uganda’s ministry of finance, pointing out the clear correlation between high fertility levels and poverty. “Are we really going to be able to give these extra people jobs, homes, healthcare and education?”

Development may not be the only casualty of the population boom. With increased competition for scarce resources such as land, conflict is likely to increase. Consequences will be felt far beyond Africa: pressure to migrate abroad – already great – can only grow, experts say.

It is not yet a lost cause. Experience has shown that with strong political will population growth can be tackled in Africa. Southern Africa’s population is expected to remain stable thanks to sustained efforts to cut fertility rates, although Aids-related deaths are also a factor. In 1978 Uganda’s neighbour Kenya had the world’s highest fertility rate – more than eight children per mother. The government made family planning a national priority and by the mid-1990s the figure had dropped to below five.

But a number of African leaders, including Uganda’s president, Yoweri Museveni, believe that their countries are underpopulated, and that a bigger internal market and workforce will boost their economic prospects. In a speech to MPs in July Mr Museveni said: “I am not one of those worried about the ‘population explosion’. This is a great resource.”

Studies across Africa have shown that the desire for large families remains powerful. In Nigeria a recent survey revealed that only 4% of women with two children said they wanted no more. Part of the reason is cultural, with bigger families seen as a sign of security. It is also because of fears of high levels of infant mortality.

Stigmas about birth control are another factor. Reproductive health experts say that a lack of information and of availability of female contraceptives plays a major role. In Ethiopia only 8% of married women use contraceptives. In Uganda more than a third of all women say they would like to stop – or at least stall – having children.

For that, donors must share the blame, said Steven Sinding, director-general of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. He said the world had declared premature victory in the battle to cut fertility rates. Curbing population growth is not one of the UN’s Millennium Development Goals, which aim to halve poverty by 2015, and barely features in the Commission for Africa report championed by Tony Blair.

“In sub-Saharan Africa population remains a very serious problem,” said Mr Sinding. “Yet donors have completely shifted their focus to HIV/Aids and nobody is talking about it any more.”

Elly Mugumya, head of the Family Planning Association of Uganda, agreed. Cost is not the problem in Uganda, he explained: a three-month supply of birth-control pills costs about 25 cents; condoms are free for the men. The problem is access – in most parts of Uganda clinics simply do not exist.

 

NEED TO PLACE QUESTIONS HERE!!!

 

Extension: Use populationpyramid.net to find population pyramids for countries with youthful populations.

Task 5: Plenary: Look at the cartoon pictures below and with one sentence identify how it could cause death rates to fall

Image result for cartoon doctor
Image result for cartoon no war sign

 

Image result for cartoon healthy food
Image result for cartoon well water
Image result for cartoon medicine
Image result for cartoon hygiene

 

 

Case Studies covered:

A country with a high rate of natural population growth

A country with a low rate of population growth (or population decline)