Category: Population Dynamics:

Changes in Population Size – Population Policies…

Changes in Population Size – Population Policies…

Title: Pro-Natalist and Anti-Natalist Population Policies:

L.O: To know how pro-natalist and anti-natalist population policies impact upon the population size of a country and to evaluate a case study country for each policy

key terms/phrases:

Population policy

Pro-Natalist policy

Anti-Natalist policy

Fertility Rate

Birth Rate

SEEP Impacts (social, economical, environmental, political)

Key questions: Why might a country introduce such policies? How might government population policies impact upon birth and death rates?

 

Pro-Natalist Policies 

Image result for singapore flag

Image result for cartoon baby

Lesson starter: We are going to start with looking at a pro-natalist population policy case study. To start off with we need to define what we mean by “pro-natalist policy”. In pairs, work to find the answers to the below two questions either using your mobile devices or course text books (pgs 20-21 can help you)…

Q. Define the term pro-natalist policy (1mark)

Q. Suggest three reasons why a country might decide to bring out this kind of policy

Image result for cambridge igcse geog book

Main development…

Case study – Singapore’s Pro-Natalist Policy Image result for singapore flag

 

 

You are going to conduct a 5W Enquiry into why Singapore introduced their pro-natalist policy. You can use the resources embedded on this page or from your course text books or from the google search engine.

Your case study in your notes must follow the following framework of questions:

  1. What were the specifics to the policy (we know its pro-birth but can you explain any other points)
  2. When was the policy first introduced (can you also produce a timeline of the before, during and after key events surrounding the polciy?)
  3. Who implemented the policy?
  4. Where was the policy put into place (was there a difference in level of policy implementation bewteen the rural and urban areas?)
  5. Why was the policy implemented? (Explain your answer in a s much detail as possible)
  6. Identify the SEEP impacts of the policy (make a table with bullet point list for your notes)

Answer the questions as as detailed as you can for your review exam style question at the end…

 

Image result for singapore population pyramid 1985

 

Image result for singapore population pyramid 2018

 

Image result for map singapore pro natalist policy
Key articles that can help your research:
Review: Exam style question…
Q. Using a pro-natalist case study you have researched, describe and evaluate the level of success the policy had (7marks)
Tips to help with this question:
Case study – China’s Anti-Natalist Policy (the one child policy)
Image result for flag of china
Image result for cartoon one child policy

You are going to conduct a 5W Enquiry into why China introduced their anti-natalist policy. You can use the resources embedded on this page or from your course text books or from the google search engine.

Your case study in your notes must follow the following framework of questions:

  1. What were the specifics to the policy (we know its anti-birth but can you explain any other points)
  2. When was the policy first introduced (can you also produce a timeline of the before, during and after key events surrounding the policy? Why has the policy now changed to a “two child policy” since 2016?)
  3. Who implemented the policy?
  4. Where was the policy put into place (was there a difference in level of policy implementation between the rural and urban areas?)
  5. Why was the policy implemented? (Explain your answer in a s much detail as possible)
  6. Identify the SEEP impacts of the policy (make a table with a bullet point list for your notes)

Answer the questions as as detailed as you can for your review exam style question at the end…

Image result for population pyramid china 1978
Image result for population pyramid china 2018
Image result for china's one child policy
Key articles that can help your research:
Review: Exam style question…
Q. Using a anti-natalist case study you have researched, describe and evaluate the level of success the policy had (7marks)
Tips to help with question:
Introduction:
Begin with identifying your case study and delivering opening statement – state whether you think the policy was a success or not, that way you are dealing with answering the question straight away. Then identify the factors/points you want to discuss in your main body of text that will help support your point of view, for example:
“In focusing on China’s one child policy that was originally put into place in 1979, I believe that this policy, in terms of slowing the birth rate of the country was a success as the rate dropped dramatically over the following the 30years. However this, from my opinion, came at a huge cost to the people of China as huge human rights issues came about including forced abortions; economic
Main development:
conclusion:

 

Causes of changes in Population Size – Ageing/Youthful Populations…

Causes of changes in Population Size – Ageing/Youthful Populations…

Title: Causes of changes in Population Size

L.O: To know the main causes of a change in population size

Key Terms/phrases:

Ageing population

Youthful Population

Population Policies

HIV/Aids epidemic

Physical and Human causes

Positive and Negative SEEP IMPACTS

 Key questions:

Explain the Impacts of social, economic and other factors (including government policies, HIV/AIDS) on birth and death rates

Key skills:

Identification

Reasoning

Team work

Case Study construction

Lesson starter: Task 1: Paired work: Look at the cartoon pictures below and with one sentence identify how it could cause birth rates to fall

Image result for cartoon old people

Image result for cartoon women need more rest

 

Image result for cartoon contraception´

 

Image result for cartoon married couple

 

Image result for cartoon family planning
Image result for cartoon no child labour
Image result for cartoon less infant mortality

 

Main Development:

Image result for elderly people road sign

Task 2: Falling birth rates (population decline)

Case Study of Population Decline – Italy, Southern Europe

Ageing populations can be studied at a national scale or at a smaller scale at the town and city level.

An ageing population is where the proportion of old people is increasing, becoming greater than the younger proportion

 

Image result for population pyramid italy 2019

Study Italy’s population pyramid above from 2016.

Describe the shape of the pyramid (words that could help could be narrow base, oval shaped, convex shaped, expansive middle)

Next is an article that reports on a village in Italy, its ageing population and its impacts on falling birth rates. Read it and then answer the questions that follow:

Vastogirardi

 

Italian village’s mayor hopes tax on singles leads to babies

Too busy hunting boar, making wine or playing soccer to settle down, the aging bachelors of a dying Italian village have been catapulted to infamy by their mayor’s ultimatum: Marry or pay a singles’ tax.

Vastogirardi, founded almost 2,000 years ago on a mountain in southern Italy, will soon cease to exist unless its citizens start having children, Mayor Vincenzo Venditti said.

In the latest symptom of a demographic time bomb that church and state have been powerless to defuse, the mayor has declared war on the self-sufficient old boys who cluster in bars every night and return to empty homes.

Venditti intends to levy a tax on the 50 men and 20 women who show no desire to marry or have children despite prominently advertised government aid to families.

“We are reaching the point of no return. When the school dies, society dies,” he said. Funerals in the village outnumber weddings by 3 to 1. There is no secondary school, not enough children to fill the primary school and the kindergarten will close within three years unless more babies are born.

One was born last year, none this year.

In three decades, the population has shriveled from more than 3,000 to 823. Once famed for its delicate, handmade mozzarella cheese, Vastogirardi no longer has a bank, plumber, shoemaker or priest.

But for the bachelors, life is sweet. Hunting, fishing, a soccer field, three bars and wine-making fill their free time. Some of them have been engaged to the same woman for 20 years.

“It suits us,” said Antonio Bisciotti, 29, sitting in the Bar Central with friends. “We’re lazy. We like our lives.”

The bachelors are not intimidated by the proposed tax; it would most likely be declared unconstitutional. But the proposal has hit a nerve in a country where the average birthrate of 1.2 children per woman is the lowest in the world.

Many bachelors are part of Italy’s army of so-called mammoni, grown-up sons who never leave their mothers and the comforts of home. The phenomenon carries no stigma in Italy.

Like their male counterparts, the village’s new generation of educated, career-driven women are in no rush to bag partners. Vincenza Marracino, 43, returned 16 years ago after studying in Rome to build the village’s only pharmacy. A family would come second, if at all.

Q1. Describe Italy’s baby crisis

 

 

 

Q2. Make a list of 5 changes happening in the village of Vastogiradi as it gets smaller

 

 

 

 

Q3. Why Is Italy’s birth rate falling so rapidly? Give three reasons

 

 

Q4. Describe and Explain three changes on Italy if the population structure changes in all villages

 

Extension: Read about a possible management solution for the problems in Italy.

 

Task 3: High rate of natural population growth rate (youthful population)

Case study of high natural population growth rate – Uganda, Africa

A youthful population is where the proportion of young people is increasing, becoming greater than the adult population

Image result for population pyramid uganda 2016

Study Uganda’s population pyramid above from 2016.

Describe the shape of the pyramid (words that could help could be narrow top, pyramid shaped, concave, expansive base)

Below is an article that reports on Africa’s and Uganda’s growing youthful populations. Read it and then answer the questions that follow:

 

High birthrate threatens to trap Africa in cycle of poverty

There are 27.7 million people in Uganda. But by 2025 the population will almost double to 56 million, close to that of Britain, which has a similar land mass. In 44 years its population will have grown by nearly as much as China’s.

“You look at these numbers and think ‘that’s impossible’,” said Carl Haub, senior demographer at the US-based Population Reference Bureau, whose latest global projections show Uganda as the fastest-growing country in the world. Midway through the 21st century, if current birthrates persist, Uganda will be the world’s 12th most populous country with 130 million people – more than Russia or Japan.

Startling as they are, the projections are feasible, and a glance at some of the variables shows why. A typical Ugandan woman gives birth to seven children – an extraordinarily high fertility rate that has remained largely unchanged for more than 30 years. Half the population is under 15, and will soon move into childbearing age. Only one in five married women has access to contraception.

Taken together, the factors point to a population explosion that has demographers and family planning experts warning that efforts to cut poverty are doomed unless urgent measures are taken.

And not just in Uganda. Across much of sub-Saharan Africa the population is expanding so quickly that the planet’s demographic map is changing.

In the rest of world, including developing nations in Asia and South America, fertility rates have steadily declined to an average of 2.3 children to each mother. Most will experience only modest population growth in coming decades. Some countries, particularly in eastern Europe, will see their numbers decline.

But by 2050 Chad, Mali, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Niger, Burundi and Malawi – all among the poorest nations in the world – are projected to triple in size. Nigeria will have become the world’s fourth-biggest country. The Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia will have vaulted into the top 10 for the first time. Nearly one in four of the world’s population will come from Africa – up from one in seven today.

“What’s happening is alarming and depressing,” said Jotham Musinguzi, director of the population secretariat in Uganda’s ministry of finance, pointing out the clear correlation between high fertility levels and poverty. “Are we really going to be able to give these extra people jobs, homes, healthcare and education?”

Development may not be the only casualty of the population boom. With increased competition for scarce resources such as land, conflict is likely to increase. Consequences will be felt far beyond Africa: pressure to migrate abroad – already great – can only grow, experts say.

It is not yet a lost cause. Experience has shown that with strong political will population growth can be tackled in Africa. Southern Africa’s population is expected to remain stable thanks to sustained efforts to cut fertility rates, although Aids-related deaths are also a factor. In 1978 Uganda’s neighbour Kenya had the world’s highest fertility rate – more than eight children per mother. The government made family planning a national priority and by the mid-1990s the figure had dropped to below five.

But a number of African leaders, including Uganda’s president, Yoweri Museveni, believe that their countries are underpopulated, and that a bigger internal market and workforce will boost their economic prospects. In a speech to MPs in July Mr Museveni said: “I am not one of those worried about the ‘population explosion’. This is a great resource.”

Studies across Africa have shown that the desire for large families remains powerful. In Nigeria a recent survey revealed that only 4% of women with two children said they wanted no more. Part of the reason is cultural, with bigger families seen as a sign of security. It is also because of fears of high levels of infant mortality.

Stigmas about birth control are another factor. Reproductive health experts say that a lack of information and of availability of female contraceptives plays a major role. In Ethiopia only 8% of married women use contraceptives. In Uganda more than a third of all women say they would like to stop – or at least stall – having children.

For that, donors must share the blame, said Steven Sinding, director-general of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. He said the world had declared premature victory in the battle to cut fertility rates. Curbing population growth is not one of the UN’s Millennium Development Goals, which aim to halve poverty by 2015, and barely features in the Commission for Africa report championed by Tony Blair.

“In sub-Saharan Africa population remains a very serious problem,” said Mr Sinding. “Yet donors have completely shifted their focus to HIV/Aids and nobody is talking about it any more.”

Elly Mugumya, head of the Family Planning Association of Uganda, agreed. Cost is not the problem in Uganda, he explained: a three-month supply of birth-control pills costs about 25 cents; condoms are free for the men. The problem is access – in most parts of Uganda clinics simply do not exist.

 

NEED TO PLACE QUESTIONS HERE!!!

 

Extension: Use populationpyramid.net to find population pyramids for countries with youthful populations.

Task 5: Plenary: Look at the cartoon pictures below and with one sentence identify how it could cause death rates to fall

Image result for cartoon doctor
Image result for cartoon no war sign

 

Image result for cartoon  healthy food
Image result for cartoon well water
Image result for cartoon medicine
Image result for cartoon hygiene

 

 

Case Studies covered:

A country with a high rate of natural population growth

A country with a low rate of population growth (or population decline)

Over-population/Under-population

Over-population/Under-population

Title. Overpopulation/Under-population 

L.O: To show an understanding of over-population and under-population

Key Terms/phrases:

Overpopulation

Under-population

Optimum population

Birth Rate/ Death Rate/Migration

Physical and Human causes / Positive and Negative SEEP IMPACTS (social, economical, environmental, political)

Key questions:

How do birth rate, death rate and migration contribute to the population of a country increasing or declining?

Key skills:

Identification

Reasoning

Team work

Case Study construction

Lesson starter: Task 1:

Watch the below clip and after watching try to sum up what the message is in no more than 50words.

Overpoulated:

“When a country or region does not have enough resources to keep its people at a reasonable standard of living”.

 Underpopulated:

 “When a country or region has more resources available than are being used by people living there”

There is a third definition we are interested in too:

Optimum population:

“The size of a population that produces the best results according to chosen end targets. These end targets could be largest per capita income, long term sustainability, efficient operation of democracy, preservation of personal freedom and preservation of biodiversity.

Image result for optimum population cartoon

Key Question: How might a country go about achieving a optimum population? What strategies might it implement? Discuss as a whole class…

Main Development:

Task 2: Key questions – Think, Pair ,Share:

Work in pairs to try and answer the following questions:

Q. Explain why a country with a large population may not be overpopulated?

Q. Explain why a country with a small population may be overpopulated?

 Discuss as a whole class…

 Task 3: Research Skills:

 Using your mobile devices or laptops, access the following website link and investigate the following questions:

www.populationmatters.org

  1. Name the three most populated countries according to the Optimum Population Trust

Case Study construction:

 

  1. Use the internet to find out why Singapore is overpopulated. Bullet point the main reasons in your notes

Task 4: Consequences of over-population and under-population:

Create a table like the one below.

Image result for blank table outline two columns

Title one column over-populated and the other under – populated. Use pg. 7 in your course text books to complete the table and answer Task 4 with reference to source E.

 

 

 

Image result for cambridge igcse text book

 

Plenary: Task 5:  –  Show your understanding:

 

Use the evidence in the photographs below to create definitions of overpopulation and under-population (match your definitions with the ones at the start of the lesson, but do not cheat and look at them before)

Image result for tokyo people congestions

Picture 1 – downtown Tokyo

Image result for underpopulation

 Picture 2 – small village in rural Iceland

Case studies covered:

 A country which is over-populated

A country which is under-populated

 

 

Global Population Growth…

Global Population Growth…

Title: Global Population Growth…

L.O: To know how to describe and give reasons for the rapid increase in the world’s population

Key Skill development:

Identification

Reasoning (using PEEL)

Research Skills

Discussion

KEY TERMS:

  1. Rapid Population growth
  2. Population Distribution
  3. Population Density
  4. Densely Populated
  5. Sparsely Populated
  6. Birth Rate
  7. Death Rate
  8. Life Expectancy
  9. MEDCs, LEDCs, LLEDCs, RICS, NICs, OPECs
  10. Over-population/Under-population
  11. Migration
  12. Population decrease

Starter: Task 1: Take a look at the world population clock on the homepage of Geoschooley. Try and guess what the clock will say at the end of this 1hr and 20minute lesson. As an extension – make a list of the factors that might have an impact on this clock increasing so rapidly…

Image result for india busy train

Main Development:

Task 2: Describing Global Population Growth

Complete the Global Population Growth Task Sheet using the Google Search Engine and the resources below:

 https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/intermediate2/geography/human_environments/world_population_distribution/revision/1/

 

Global Population Growth Task Sheet

 

Task 3: Why has the world’s population been growing so fast?

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/intermediate2/geography/human_environments/world_population_change/revision/1/

The following have been major factors in the world’s population growing so fast:

  1. People living longer (decreased death rate)…
  2. Increased Birth rate…
  3. Better health care to combat diseases…
  4. Fewer global wars…
  5. Lack of contraception in developing countries…
  6. A lack of knowledge of sexual reproduction…
  7. Cultural and traditional views of the benefits of having large families – particularly in developing countries…
  8. Improved living standards on a global scale…
  9. Improved technology…and many many more…

Can you turn the global population graph you have produced into a Living Graph? Can you develop the points further using PEEL on your graph…

Global Population Growth Living Graph Cards…

 

Image result for living graph global population example

(source: https://www.ielts-mentor.com)

 

An example of a “Living Graph”annotation has been done for you below…

A social reason…

  1. People living longer (decreased death rate)…

Point: People are living longer and therefore the death rate has decreased.

Explain: This has been happening because people are more aware about the advantages of living healthier lifestyles and so more and more people now attends gyms, eat healthier and participate less in activities such as smoking.

Evidence: This is evident in HICs (High Income Countries) as people in countries like Germany and Switzerland are have a greater life expectancy due to the above actions…

Link: If people are living longer this can result a greater level of knowledge in society through there being more older and experienced people in the workforce, therefore improving technology perhaps…

Task 4: Key independent research task: 

Watch the series of youtube videos below as part of the “How Many People Can Live on PLanet Earth” Series and try and make notes under the following subheadings:

  1. Why has the Earth’s population grown so much and so fast?
  2. Where is the world’s population growing so fast?
  3. What are the consequences of such fast growing population?
  4. Why might the world’s population growth rate slow down?

Plenary:

Define the following key terms in your notes for a key term quiz next lesson:

  1. Rapid Population growth
  2. Population Distribution
  3. Population Density
  4. Densely Populated
  5. Sparsely Populated
  6. Birth Rate
  7. Death Rate
  8. Life Expectancy
  9. MEDCs, LEDCs, LLEDCs, RICS, NICs, OPECs
  10. Over-population/Under-population
  11. Migration
  12. Population decrease

Homework – independent work time:

Revise the above list of key terms for your quiz next lesson…

Extension task:

Access the sky news feeds on GeoSchooley and find any examples of where there is evidence of the world’s population slowing down (population decrease)…