Category: 4. KS3 and KS2 Geography

Materials and resources developed during a decade of teaching that help students engage with and learn about the physical, human and environmental sides of Geography. All resources are placed into a workable curriculum that can help inspire the young Geographer! Geography Education in Porto Internationalism in Porto.

How to write like a Geographer…Geoschooley showing you how!

How to write like a Geographer…Geoschooley showing you how!



L.O: To know how to write like a Geographer...


In our Geography learning, in order for us to help develop our knowledge and skills, and in turn to show our understanding, we are expected to be able to deliver responses that are not just geographically correct but are also well structured and provide good reasoning…

Therefore, it is important we know how to do this for all types of questions, whether it be for written or verbal tasks, focusing on maps, graphs, diagrams, models, theory’s or any kind of Geography situation that needs describingexplaining or solving. The following tasks aim to help develop the upper primary school geographer with their writing skills in Geography when presented with these different scenarios in their Geography learning…


Task oneDescribe a pattern on a map and graph…

The map…


Map 1: The distribution of forest and woodland around the world (source:

Your task here is to:

Q. Describe the pattern of woodland around the world (3marks)

In this kind of question (a describe question) we need to normally give 3 points of description – so for this we use the technique of OSO…

All we have to do with regards to the distribution of woodland around the world is describe something:

  1. OBVIOUS about its distribution
  2. SPECIFIC about its location
  3. ODD about its location


Here is an example for you to see…

From observing the map and identifying the woodland, it is obvious that the majority of woodland is found in the Southern Hemisphere of the world. To be more specific, we can see that woodland is distributed in Australia, Africa and South America. Oddly, there is no woodland in the Indonesian islands, where you might expect to find some”.





The graph…


Graph 1: Human population growth between 1050 – 2017 (source:

Your task here is to:

Q. Describe the pattern of human population growth on the graph (3marks)

Again, in this kind of question (another describe question) we need to normally give 3 points of description – so for this again we use the technique of OSO…


All we have to do with regards to describing human population growth on the graph is describe something:

  1. OBVIOUS about its growth using figures
  2. SPECIFIC about its growth using figures
  3. ODD about its growth using figures


Here is an example for you to see…

From observing the graph, it is obvious that the human population growth has been very fast (rapid) between 1950 onwards as we can see that there was a very sharp increase from around 2billion people to around 7.5billion. To be more specific,  from 1850 to 1950, the human population growth can be seen to be increasing from around 1billion people to around 2billion people in the space of 100 years. Oddly, in the space of 750 years from 1050 – 1800 there is hardly any great increase to the human population growth, with it never passing more than 1billion people during this time period.


The diagram/model/theory…


This is my attempt for a simple diagrammatic explanation of climate change. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap heat from the sun in our atmosphere. We need this: if it didn't happen it would be too cold to live on earth. However, because we're pumping so much greenhouse gas into the atmosphere - mainly CO2 from burning fossil fuels - it's warming up more than it would normally.

Diagram 1: A simplified version of the global warming process (source:

Your task here is to:

Q. Explain the process taking place in the diagram (5marks)

In this kind of question (an explain question) we need to normally identify 5 key points and explain them in geographical detail,- so for this we use the technique of PEEL..





All we have to do with regards to the EXPLAINING the diagram is:

  1. Identify your key POINTs
  2. EXPLAIN those points in detail
  3. Back them up with EVIDENCE from the diagram or with an EXAMPLE you know
  4. Make sure our sentences LINK
  5. Its a good tip to use some of the words from the digram too to help your explanation


Here is an example for you to see…

In the diagram, sun heat energy travels to the earth’s surface as incoming energy, where some of it is absorbed and some is reflected back towards space as outgoing energy. Amongst the outgoing energy that is reflected back, some escapes into space but some is also trapped in the earth’s atmosphere by the greenhouse gases. The more greenhouse gases there are in the atmosphere, the more heat energy that is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere, causing temperatures to increase, causing global warming. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can increase by there being an increase in cars, coal factories and the increase of size of cities, for example, cities like London sprawling out into the suburbs.



Paragraphs in Geography…









Point – This is where you identify or define your initial geographical point that you are trying to make. For example, Tourism causes pollution in an area through increased litter levels that is created on the floor…

Explain – Next, you have to give reasoning to your initial point in order to show understanding of the point you are trying to make – litter levels increase when tourists visit an area because the majority of the time tourists do not necessarily care about their litter being disposed of properly because it’s not the area they live in, thus, just throw it on the ground. Tourists also when on holiday ted to eat a lot more convenience foods, therefore increasing the amount of rubbish that can be littered on the ground…

Evidence – In support, you should try and give a real life example or case study that supports your point and makes it come alive, for example – litter levels have increased by 35% in Porto, Northern Portugal since the tourism revolution 0f 2014…

Link – Finally, if writing a short essay or multiple paragraphs, try and make the final sentence of your PEEL response link to the next sentence of the new paragraph so that your response is coherent and flows well, for example, litter can lead to many environmental problems, including negatively impacting upon wildlife and habitat ecosystems. Ecosystems can be affected by litter in through impacting upon the living space of animals…


Task – Have ago at a photograph expanation:

Have a go at looking and explaining the Geographical photograph below of a typical scene outside a Macdonalds in Los Angeles with a PEEL explanation, picking out one Geographical point, explaining it in more detail and providing evidence to backup your explanation (you dont have to link in this exercise)

Image result for mcdonalds litter

Photograph 1: A typical scene outside a Macdonalds in Los Angeles (source: google search engine)



Getting started with Google Earth…The Geoschooley way!

Getting started with Google Earth…The Geoschooley way!



L.O: To become familiar with how to use Google Earth


(source: google images)

Key skill development:

Using the basic tools on Google Earth to create a digital map

English writing skills in the plenary

Key terms:

GIS – Geographical Information System




So what is Google Earth???

Google Earth makes a world of geographic information available to students in a dynamic way over a web browser. It uses tools and features that infuse  geographic thinking and inquiry into your learning (source:


Starter – Task 1: In pairs try and complete the 5W + How below to help begin the process of becoming more familiar with Goggle Earth – use your ipads to research…


1) What is Google Earth?

2) Why do we use it in Geography?

3) Who uses it in Geography?

4) When is it best to use in Geography

5) Where is it best to use in Geography?

6) How can it help us understand Geography better?


Image result for 5ws




Task 2:  Become familiar – Create a Tour Around The World! (Task idea originated from

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Access Google Earth on the below link (you will need a gmail account so you can sign in to save your work, )


The Ten-Day Tour Around the World

(Task idea originated from

world travel tourist destinations and landmarks cartoon vector illustration graphic design Stock Vector - 109951390

1)  Your task is to use Google Earth to build an itinerary for a tour you will take with family or friends to 10 locations around the world.

2) You should try to include a variety of sites with diverse historical, cultural, and environmental significance—for example, the Taj Mahal (a cultural site in India), the Amazon rain forest (an area of environmental significance), and the Great Wall of China (a site of historical significance).

3) Use this worksheet Creating a Tour Around the World with Google Earth to explore in Google Earth and plan your tour.

4)  Save your tour stops to the My Places folder, and create a detailed tour itinerary to share.


Task 3 – Plenary: Create a short story of your WORLD TOUR. Your story should include:

  • No more than 150 words
  • At least 3 locations you visited
  • Some Human features
  • Some Physical features
  • What you enjoyed most about the tour



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Introduction Lesson With Mr. Hooley

Introduction Lesson With Mr. Hooley


Introduction Lesson With Mr. Hooley…


L.O: To get to know your Geography teacher a little better and to establish a working relationship for our lessons going forward.



Task 1: In pairs think of 5 questions you can ask about your teacher to help you get to know him better. Example questions could be:

  1. Where do you come from?
  2. When did you start teaching?
  3. Why did you become a Geography teacher
  4. Who is your Geography hero?
  5. What are your dreams?


Task 2: Why I love Geography…and I hope you do too???

(source of video – youtube)


Can you write a short paragraph on why you love Geography? Think about the following reasons if you need help…

  • Knowledge of the geographical space around us – Physical Geography – weather, mountains, deserts, rivers, ecosystems, climate change, plate tectonics
  • Knowledge about different cultures and societies – Human Geography – settlements, jobs, populations, politics, migration, globalisation


Task 3: Our Learning Contract…

What is a learning contract? Its a contract where WE decide as a group what will make the best learning environment for our Geography lessons. Use the back of your books to jot down some ideas and discuss in your pair, and then as group, we will establish our contract on out google classroom group.

Handshake Cartoon Contract, greeting, child, animals png

Task 4: Homework – Over the next week using your phones your teacher wants you to take as many photos as possible that you think show “Gucci Geography” (definition – Gucci Geography refers to geography that is excellent in every way in the geography world). You best photo will be placed on to the Gucci Geography Gallery over the next few weeks.

(A sunset in Porto, Portugal – source google images)


Leonardo Da Vinci – the man who wanted to know everything…

Leonardo Da Vinci – the man who wanted to know everything…


Title: Leonardo Da Vinci – the man who wanted to know everything…

L.O: To understand the word Renaissance

To know why Leonardo was known as a “Renaissance Man”

To Explore what triggered the Renaissance

Task 1:Lesson starter: Observe and analyse the following cartoon images and try to create your own definition of what the word renaissance means. Perhaps try to create your own word bank first and then devise your definition…


Image result for the renaissance cartoon image


Image result for leonardo da vinci inventions

Image result for renaissance italy

Task 2: Main Development: Watch the short cartoon  youtube clip below and write down the different things that Leonardo was interested in…

Now turn your notes into a 5w Enquiry


5W Enquiry on Leonardo….

Where did Leonardo come from?

When was he alive?

What were his passions and interests?

Who were his heroes and inspirations?

Why was he known as a Renaissance man?

Task 3: Recipe time…What triggered the Renaissance???

We are now going to conduct some research on what actually triggered the Renaissance. Using pgs. 34 and 35 from your course book; google search engine; peers; teacher, you need to explore the reasons why the Renaissance period took place…Once you have your reasons you are to the create the perfect recipe that would help produce the perfect Renaissance scenario…for example…


Image result for cartoon cooking medieval pot

Take 50g of innovation and creativity

Mix it with half a litre of some a of Leonardo’s observation

Add one tsp of Raphael’s Sistine Chapel…




Task 4: Plenary: Explain why the Renissance period took place…

Write a PEEL paragraph

How bloody was Bloody Mary?

How bloody was Bloody Mary?


Title: How bloody was Bloody Mary?

L.O: Examine how and why Bloody Mary got her nickname

Decide whether she deserved her nasty nickname


Key skills:

Source Interpretation

Decision making

Building up evidence

Questioning sources

Lesson starter/Main development:

Fair or Unfair?

Image result for queen bloody mary

You are going to use the sources on pgs. 24 and 25 to build up evidence on whether or not Mary deserved her nickname.


Image result for renaissance revolution and reformation

Create a table with two columns – `Bloody Mary` and ´Unlucky Mary´. Read through sources B – I and decide if you think they suggest whether Mary deserved her nickname or not. If you think a source does, write a brief description of it in the 'Bloody Mary' column. If you think a source doesn't, write a brief description in the 'Unlucky Mary' column.



Let’s try an IGCSE exam style questi0n

Image result for igcse cambridge

Q. In your opinion, explain whether or not Mary deserved her nickname. Use evidence to support your opinion…(6marks)

Tips to help:

  • Us the evidence from today’s lesson
  • Your PEEL framework can help you explain
  • A good sentence starter could be – “In my opinion, Mary did/did not deserve her nickname. To support my opinion I can use sources…..


Edward VI…the boy king

Edward VI…the boy king


Title: Edward VI…the boy king…

L.O: Explain how and why Henry’s son changed religion in England

         Decide what kind of boy Edward VI was.


Lesson starter: Using the outline blank man template, label as many characteristics of Edward VI as you can identify from your research on pgs.22 and 23 of your course books…ADD some features of what he may have worn or looked like if you do this quickly


Image result for outline blank person

Main Development…So how did Edward change religion in England

Continue your research on pgs. 22 and 23. Using sources A and C, CREATE your own images in the boxes below of how Edward changed religion, with box 1 being a typical catholic church and box 3 being a typical protestant church. Annotate your images to help the reader understand…(Key skill – remember annotate means to label with detailed description)




Image result for blank cartoon squares

Image result for cartoon edward vi

Plenary and homework….

Design and write an obituary for King Edward VI. An obituary briefly tells some of the most important events, achievements and the personality of the person who recently died. Begin with Edward’s birth on the 12th October 1537 and end with his death on 6th July 1553 at the age of just 15…









Who’d want to marry Henry VIII?

Who’d want to marry Henry VIII?


Title: Who’d want to marry Henry VIII?

L.O: Explain why Henry married so many women?

Examine what happened to each of his wives

Advise his sixth wife on how to survive his wife

Lesson starter: Task 1: From the video try and give a small paragraph on why Henry married so many wives…


It would be good to know where they are from and why they married Henry in the first place?

Image result for henry viii wives


Main Development: Task 2: Create a small fact file on all the 6 wives of Henry VIII – examining what happened to each of them. Do this by creating a table in your books on a full page….


Image result for cartoon letter


Task 3: Now write Katherine Parr a letter, giving her advice about her forthcoming marriage. In your letter include:

  • Details of Henry’s previous five marriages
  • What attracted Henry to each of his wives?
  • What went wrong with each marriage?
  • What happened to each of his wives?



Plenary…How do view Henry now – can you give an opinion on him from all the work you have done so far? If he was around today what questions would you possibly ask him???

Image result for question mark



Henry VIII, his first wife and his big problem…

Henry VIII, his first wife and his big problem…


Title: Henry VIII, his first wife and his big problem…

L.O: To explore how and why Henry VIII fell out with the Pope.

   To examine how this affected the life of Henry and religion in the whole of England.


Starter – Task 1: 

The following are all important dates from Henry’s marriage to his first wife:

1533     1527     1513     1501     1509

Write each date in chronological order, on a separate line. Beside each date, write what happened in that year. Be careful – many thing happen in one of the years!

Main development: Task 2: Why did Henry VIII marry Catherine of Aragon and what happened next?

Using the story board from pgs. 14 and 15 in your course book we are going to create an Historical Infographic on why Henry divorced Catherine and why he fell out with the Pope.

Infographs can be great at providing key information without having to write too many words. Look at the example below…

A good infograph will include images, cartoons, small facts, colour and will be clear and easy to understand.

Image result for blank infographic

blank infograph

Use tracing paper on the template above to draw the outline of your infograph. Below is an example of what an Infograph looks like…

Image result for infographic henry viii

Task 3: Plenary: Create an 8 line rap song of how Henry VIII changed religion in England and how this changed his life…


Image result for rap cartoon homer simpson

What was young Henry VIII like?

What was young Henry VIII like?


Title: What was Young Henry VIII like?

L.O: To examine how young Henry VIII spent his time and money.

To judge how religious he was as a young man.

Your task is to create a Facebook profile page in your work books about the young Henry VIII using the sources available to you. The sources include:

  • Your course text book (pgs. 12-15)
  • Google search engine
  • Your peers
  • Your teacher
    Image result for facebook logo

    Image result for young henry viii

To help structure your facebook profile page consider the following sub-headings for your page:

  • Henry the athlete
  • Henry the good catholic
  • Henry the big spender

Review and complete for homework: Your judgement – give your opinion to the following question…

“Should the young king Henry have been called Henry the Great”?


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